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A GENERAL CATALOGUE 



OF 



NEBULA AND CLTJSTEES OF STARS, 

ARRANGED IN ORDER OF RIGHT ASCENSION AND REDUCED 
TO THE COMMON EPOCH 1860-0 



(WITH PRECESSIONS COMPUTED FOR THE EPOCH 1880-0). 



BY 

SIR JOHN F. W. HERSCHEL, BART., K.H., F.R.S., 

M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S.E., 'nON. M.R.I.A., F.B.A.S., F.G.S., M.C.U.P.S.. 

Member oftlic Institute of France, 

and 

( 'orrespondent or Honorary Member of the Imperial, Royal, and National Academies of Sciences of Amsterdam. 

Berlin. Breslau, Brussels, Copenhagen, Gottingen. Haarlem, Massachusetts (U.S.), Modena, Moscow, 

Naples. Pesth, Petersburg, Stockholm, Turin, Vienna, and Washington (U.S.) ; 

The Italian and Helvetic Societies ; 
The Academies, Institutes. &c. of Albany (U.S.), Bologna, Catania, Dijon. Lausanne, 

Nantes, Padua. Palermo, Rome, Venice, Utrecht, and Wilna ; 

The Philomathic Society of Paris; the Asiatic Society of Bengal; South African Lit. and Phil. Society; Literarv and 

Historical Society of Quebec ; Historical Society of New York ; Batavian Society of Experimental 

Philosophy of Rotterdam ; Royal Med.-Chir. Soc., Instit. of Civil Engineers, 

and Soc. of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, London ; 

Leeds and Manchester Literary and Philosophical Societies ; Geographical Society of Berlin ; 
Astronomical and Meteorological Society of British Guiana ; &c. <tc. &c. 



From the PHILOSOPHICAL TP.ANSACTIONS. PART I. 1804. 




(irinVERSITY) 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

1864. 



\* 



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 



I. Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars. 
By Sir JOHN FREDERICK WILLIAM HERSCHEL, Sort., F.R.S. 

Received October 16, Read November 19, 1863. 

Introduction. 

THE study of the Nebulae has, within the last quarter of a century, attracted much more 
of the attention of observers than heretofore as well on account of the singularity of 
the phenomena presented by many of these objects, as in consequence of the increased 
optical power of the telescopes which the skill and industry of modern inventors and artists 
have placed within their reach. The brighter nebulae cannot be viewed to any advantage, 
and the fainter cannot be seen at all, except by the aid of telescopes of large aperture ; 
and, thanks to the exertions of Lord ROSSE, Mr. LASSELL, Messrs. NASMYTH and DE LA 
RUE in England, and Messrs. STEINHEIL, FOUCAULT, and PORRO in Germany and France, 
as regards reflecting telescopes, and to those of FRAUNHOFER, MEHZ, CAUCHOIX, CLARKE, 
COOK, SECRETAN, Ross, and DALLMEYER as regards refractors ; instruments of abundantly 
sufficient optical capacity not only to repeat and verify the earlier observations, but to 
disclose new and more interesting features in many cases, have now come into the hands 
of many observers, both professional astronomers and amateurs, and may be had by any 
one who is willing to incur a cost which may be considered moderate when it is remembered 
that instruments of similar dimensions and goodness could not be obtained fifty years 
ago at any price. In consequence we find a continually increasing attention directed to 
this department of astronomy. Not to insist on the observations of the Earl of ROSSE 
and Mr. LASSELL with their transcendent reflectors, we find a systematic examination and 
review of them undertaken by M. D' ARREST in the year 1855, by the aid of a refractor 
of 6-feet focal length and 4 inches aperture in the Leipzig Observatory, whose results, 
consisting in the carefully determined places, by repeated observations, of about 230 
nebulae, were published in 1856, in a work entitled " Resultate aus Beobachtungen der 
Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen" (Erste Reihe, Leipzig). This review has since been 
carried on by the same excellent astronomer, with the great refractor by MERZ of 
11 inches in aperture and 1 6-feet focus, erected in the year 1861 at the Royal Observa- 

MDCCCLXIV. B 



2 SIR J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

tory of Copenhagen. Again, from the Observatory of the Collegio Romano, under the 
direction of Signer SECCHI, have emanated many valuable observations, and from that at 
Harvard College, Cambridge, U.S., under the late and present Professors BOND, some of 
the most striking pictorial representations of particular nebulae which we possess. 
Neither ought a short but very valuable memoir by the late E. MASON, printed in the 
7th volume of the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, to be passed 
in silence ; containing as it does a very elaborate and minute examination, and some 
excellent delineations of several highly interesting nebulae, particularly those in the 
great nebulous region of Cygnus. To M. AUWEBS also we owe many accurate and 
valuable observations, besides a Catalogue comprising the whole series of Sir WILLIAM 
HEBSCHEL'S nebulae arranged in order of right ascension and reduced to a common epoch, 
of which more hereafter. Should the efforts which are now making to procure for the 
University of Melbourne in Australia a reflector of the first magnitude prove, as is to be 
hoped, successful, it is understood that one of the principal uses to which it will be 
devoted will be the examination and exact delineation of the numerous and wonderful 
objects of this class which the southern hemisphere presents. 

These circumstances, but more especially the last-mentioned, render it extremely 
desirable to have presented in one work, without the necessity of turning over many 
volumes, a general catalogue of all the nebulae and clusters of stars actually known, both 
northern and southern, arranged in order of right ascension and reduced to a common 
and sufficiently advanced epoch which may serve as a general index to them, and enable 
an observer at once to turn his instrument on any one of them, as well as to put it in 
his power immediately to ascertain whether any object of this nature which he may 
encounter in his observations is new, or should be set down as one previously observed. 
For want of such a general catalogue, in fact, a great many nebulae have been, from 
time to time, in the 'Astronomische Nachrichten' and elsewhere, introduced to the world 
as new discoveries, which have since been identified with nebulae already described and 
well known. Many a supposed comet, too, would have been recognized at once as a 
nebula, had such a general catalogue been at hand, and much valuable time been thus 
saved to their observers in looking out for them again. 

Besides these there are other considerations which have weighed with me in under- 
taking the task of compiling such a general catalogue. Having, in the course of my 
own observations, received the greatest possible assistance from the possession of a Manu- 
script Catalogue of all the nebulae and clusters discovered by my Father, brought to the 
common epoch 1800-0, and arranged in zones of 1 in breadth in polar distance, by his 
sister the late Miss CABOLINA L. HEESCHEL, it seemed to me nothing less than a debt of 
gratitude, not merely to acknowledge that assistance, but to avail myself still further of 
it to complete the list of his nebulae by supplying from that catalogue the places of all 
those nebulae among them which had escaped my own observation (a very numerous 
list), and by inserting from it all those places of nebulae observed by myself which were 
deficient in either element (of K.A. or P.D.), or in which I had reason to apprehend 



OF NEBULJB AJSTD CLUSTERS OF STAES. 3 

greater errors than those which probably affected her results. This I have accordingly 
done. But to do it effectually, and at the same time to effect a thoroughly correct 
identification of the objects in my catalogues with those of the older series, involved, 
as a necessary preliminary step, the reduction to 1830 - of the whole of her catalogue, 
an operation in which I received the assistance of my sons; the computations being 
executed for each nebula in duplicate and checked by myself, and which, takon 
leisurely, zone by zone, as time and circumstance permitted, proved less onerous and 
wearisome than might have been expected. The Catalogue thus reduced to the same 
epoch as my own, afforded the means of detecting and rectifying a great many errors of 
nomenclature in the latter. And it was in the course of this part of the inquiry, in 
which many cases of considerable intricacy and difficulty occurred (as will be evident on 
a perusal of the notes appended to this Catalogue), and in which it became necessary to 
recur both to the original sweeps and to a series of registered extracts from them (the 
nature of which will be more distinctly stated hereafter), that I learned fully to appre- 
tiate the skill, diligence, and accuracy which that indefatigable lady brought to bear on 
a task which only the most boundless devotion could have induced her to undertake or 
enabled her to accomplish. 

Arrived at this stage that is to say, the mean results of all the observations in my 
own Catalogues taken, and all the deficient or imperfectly observed nebulae in my 
Father's list supplied, as above stated, and the whole arranged, not in zones, but in 
general order of right ascension, it then became necessary, in order to produce a work 
available for future observation, to bring the whole up to a still more advanced epoch. 
The work required for this purpose, calling no longer for any discussion, or collation of 
the original observations or registers, but being one of simple arithmetical computation 
from a definite formula the Royal Society, at my application, very liberally undertook 
to supply, from the funds at their annual disposal, the amount necessary to procure its 
execution by an experienced computer (Mr. KEESCHNER, one of the occasional computists 
for the Royal Observatory of Greenwich). This work the Astronomer Royal most 
obligingly offered to superintend, affording at the same time his advice as to the general 
principle on which the computation should be conducted. The plan suggested by him 
and adopted in effect was this. Each object in the Catalogue was first roughly brought 
up to the year 1880 by the application of approximate precessions in R.A. and P.D. 
The places so obtained were then employed to compute the exact precessions in both by 
the usual formula?, with coefficients for the year 1880-0, viz. 

Precession in R.A. = 3 S -072 + l'-337 . sin R.A. cotan P.D. 

Precession in P.D. = 20"'06cosR.A. 

And the precessions, so calculated, were then used to bring up the places from 1830 to 
1860, the epoch of the Catalogue; so that, the places being given for 1860 and the pre- 
cessions for twenty years in advance, the application of those precessions to those places 
shall give dependable places for any year up to the year 1930, at which time the small 
error in excess or defect of the true precession consequent on using the fifty years' 

B2 



4 SIR J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

antecedent place of the object will be exactly compensated by the further change of 
place in the same direction in the subsequent fifty. Two cases of excessive proximity to 
the poles, northern and southern, viz. those of the nebulae Nos. 2043 and 1652 of the 
present Catalogue, are excepted, the precessions changing so rapidly, and with so much 
deviation from uniformity, that a rigorous computation, at least in R.A., will always be 
necessary. In the case of No. 2043, the effect of precession in the thirty years from 
1830 to 1860 has been to change the R.A. from 2 1 ' 32 m to 10 h 8 m . 

This computation was completed, and a fair copy of the resulting places, arranged de 
now in their order of R.A. for 1860, forwarded to me on the 6th of February last (1863). 
The nomenclature of the objects having in the interim been settled satisfactorily by 
myself, and a description of each nebula, from a careful comparison of all the descriptions 
given, prepared, it remained only to fill in the columns left blank for these and the other 
necessary particulars, and to complete the Catalogue by the insertion in their proper 
places of the places and descriptions of all such other nebulae, non-observed by either my 
Father or myself, similarly reduced, of which I could gather any accounts. These will be 
found enumerated further on in the " Explanation and arrangement of the Catalogue." 

On the 23rd of February last, while engaged in this work, I received, by the kindness 
of the Astronomer Royal, a copy of the important work of M. AUWERS before alluded 
to, entitled " WILLIAM HERSCHEL'S Verzeichnissen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen, 
bearbeitet von ARTHUR AUWEES. Konigsberg, 1862," of whose existence this was my first 
notice. It contains a complete and most elaborate reduction to 1830, from the observed 
differences in R.A. and P.D. with known stars, recorded in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, of all the nebulas and clusters in my Father's three Catalogues ; together with a 
separate catalogue of all those collected by MESSIER from his own observations, or those of 
MECHAIN and others (101 in number), similarly reduced ; another of LACAILLE'S southern 
nebulae, and one of 50 " new nebulae," comprising nearly all those observed by other astro- 
nomers (Lord ROSSE excepted) in this hemisphere all brought up to the same epoch. 

It may be readily supposed that I lost no time in comparing my own previous work 
with this of M. AUWERS ; the places of which having been obtained by the aid of far 
better and more dependable catalogues of stars, to give the true positions of the zero- 
points or determining stars in the differential observations, as well as of more exact pre- 
cessions, and doubtless, a much more systematic process of treatment, would be entitled, 
observation for observation, to be considered as representing the original sweeps more 
faithfully than could be expected from my own preparatory catalogue. On the other 
hand, however, the Zone Catalogue from which that was derived possessed the advantage 
of having been deduced, not from a single difference of R.A. and P.D. between each 
nebula and a single determining star, but from all the observations of each nebula ; 
often in many different sweeps, and in the same sweep often from more than one star ; 
thus eliminating, no doubt, a great deal of casual error. In that catalogue, too, as in 
my own catalogues of 1833 and that of the southern nebulae, the individual results of 
each observation, or, to speak more exactly, of each differential comparison, is separately 



OF NEBTJLJE AND CLTJSTEKS OF STAES. 5 

recorded, so that any suspiciously large deviation from the mean of all may be at once 
noticed and traced to its origin in the sweeping books. My reduction was of course 
based on the means of all these (rejecting such as were obviously and grossly faulty), 
and might therefore, pro tanto, be regarded as of superior authority. This consideration, 
joined to that before adduced, decided me to retain those places in the present Catalogue 
which had been derived from this source, except in a few instances (specified in the 
notes) when it proved, by careful examination of the causes of discordance, that actual 
mistakes had been committed. And I must not omit to add that the comparison so 
instituted with M. AUWERS'S results has led me to the detection of several grave errors 
in my own work which would certainly have otherwise escaped notice (and in some 
cases have caused the loss of future observations by missetting the telescope), and whose 
rectification has added materially to its value. On the other hand, as no human work 
is perfect, I have been led to notice some errors in M. AUWERS'S work itself, which are 
set down in a list of errata and corrigenda at the end of this Catalogue ; and besides, a 
good many cases in which, owing to mistakes in the printed catalogue in the volumes of 
the Philosophical Transactions (many of which stood corrected in MS. in the margin of 
the copy of those Transactions in my possession, and many more have been silently 
detected and rectified by Miss C. H. in her subsequent computations), his calculations 
have been founded on erroneous data, and have therefore led him to assign erroneous 
places to the objects so affected. Thus on every account the result has been what may 
be considered a complete expurgation of both our catalogues. 

It remains for me to say a few words on the way in which the reduction to 1860 and 
the calculation of the precessions have been performed by Mr. KERSCHNER, the com- 
putist employed by the Astronomer Royal for that purpose. The whole work has been 
executed on printed forms, which being preserved may at any time be referred to. 
Since error in computation, however practised the computer, and however checked, is 
always possible, and occasional error of copying, especially when the order of the entries 
has to be rearranged, is absolutely unavoidable, I considered it incumbent on me to 
recalculate, seriatim from my original MS. Catalogue for 1830, and taking for granted 
the precessions set down in the fair copy, for 1880, the places both in E.A. and P.D. of 
every object included in the Catalogue ; keeping an eye meanwhile to the precessions 
themselves, and their signs, to seize the least indication of error in that quarter. It 
would have been too laborious to recompute these. As for the precessions in P.D., 
their regular progression of itself ensures their correctness, as far at least as the integer 
seconds and the first decimal place. A pretty considerable number of errors (most of 
them of little moment) was thus detected and corrected not more, however, than might 
reasonably be expected in the work of the most expert computist in so extensive a work, 
consisting of between nine and ten thousand computed entries (taking both elements), 
and traceable moreover in many instances to obvious misreading, and in some to actual 
miscntry on my part, of figures in the original MS., which but for this further examina- 
tion would also have escaped notice altogether. 

The correction of these and the other errors already spoken of necessitated, in a great 



6 SIE J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

many instances, a change in the order of E.A., and a consequent erasure and interlinea- 
tion in the MS. The introduction, too, of the other nebulae (those of M. AUWERS'S cata- 
logue of " novae," those communicated to me for insertion by M. D'ARBEST, and those 
noticed by Lord ROSSE in his memoir of 1861, amounting altogether to 433 objects) 
necessitated many more interlineations, often occurring very inconveniently, two or three 
together, in a way to disfigure the MS. considerably. Unfortunately, too, in the MS. 
itself the column headed " No. in the Catalogue," which I had intended to have been 
left blank till all the rest of the work was completed, had been filled in by the trans- 
criber with a series of numbers in regular progression, from 1 to 4629, the actual num- 
ber of lines of which it then consisted. This made it necessary to renumber the whole 
ab initio in red ink, striking out the former numbers, and thus producing a still more 
unsightly appearance. Under these circumstances, I debated whether or not to recopy 
the whole. But, to say nothing of the sacrifice of time (since I could have entrusted it 
to no other hand), I believe it impossible to copy so voluminous a mass of figures and 
abbreviated writing without numerous errors. And being satisfied, from the repeated 
and careful revision it has undergone, of its present correctness, and equally so that with 
ordinary care on the part of the compositor (should the Council of the Royal Society 
decide on printing it) no mistake can arise from any of the alterations and interlineations 
it contains, I have decided in favour of presenting it as it stands, with the exception of 
two sheets which it was absolutely necessary to recopy owing to the extreme closeness 
of the interlineations, the smallness of the writing, and the transpositions needed. 
These have each been twice carefully read with the original. 

In presenting to the Royal Society this Catalogue, it - will be accompanied by the 
following series of records and documents which it may become desirable hereafter to 
refer to in elucidation of any point which may arise respecting the history or reduction 
of such of the objects as occur in my Father's classes and numbers printed in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, viz. 

1st. A series of " register sheets" in which are entered up all the observations of each 
nebula or cluster copied verbatim from the sweeps, the nebulae, &c. being arranged in 
the order of their dates of discovery. These are the " register sheets " referred to in 
the notes on this Catalogue, and cited by their general (i. e. current) number, as H, 1 ; 
H, 2 ; . . . H, 2508. 

2nd. A similar set of register sheets of all the observations of each of MESSIER'S 
nebulae, arranged according to MESSIER'S numbers. 

3rd. A general index of the 2508 nebulas in classes and numbers, to find the " general 
number " of each to facilitate reference to the register sheets. (This index was drawn 
up by myself.) 

4th. An index list of the same nebulae, &c. arranged according to the " general 
number," to find the class and number of each. 

5th. A more complete ditto ditto, containing also the rough approximate R.A. and P.D. 
of each object for 1800, and the determining stars as in the Philosophical Transactions. 

6th. A catalogue in zones of P.D. of all the said nebulae and clusters arranged in each 



OF NEBULA AND CLUSTEES OF STABS. 7 

zone in order of R.A., and reduced to the year 1800 by Miss C. L. HEESCHEL, exhibiting 
the reduced result of each separate observation of each nebula ; together with the deter- 
mining star or stars in each case, and the differences of R.A. and P.D. from such star, with 
references to the current number of the sweep in which the observation is contained. 

7th. The original sweeps with the 20-feet reflector at Slough in which the nebulae 
were observed, contained in three small quarto and four folio volumes of MS. 

All these manuscripts, with exception of the index No. 3, are in the original hand- 
writings of my Father and his Sister, in most cases easily distinguishable, in some others 
not so readily. The Zone Catalogue No. 6 is entirely the autograph of the latter. 

Explanation and arrangement of the Catalogue. 

The Catalogue is arranged in twelve columns, of which the first contains the general 
or current number in order from 1 up to 5063, the total number of objects comprised, 
including six supplementary ones, whose insertion in their proper order in R.A. would 
have involved altering all the numbering both of the catalogue and the annotations, &c., 
and would have proved a source of confusion and unavoidable error. Nevertheless, to 
prevent their being overlooked by any observer who may consult the catalogue for the 
purpose of a general review of the nebulae, or for the verification of a new one, their 
numbers are interpolated into the general series so as to catch the eye, and a reference 
made to the supplementary catalogue in each case in the column of descriptions. 

Column 2 contains the numbers of those nebulas of which observations are given in 
my two former catalogues, and those of the two nubeculae; the numbers from 1 to 2307 
inclusive being from that in Philosophical Transactions 1833, and from 2308 to 4021 from 
my Cape observations. Where a number in this column is enclosed in hooks thus [ ], it 
is taken from the Catalogue of Objects in the Nubecula minor in pp. 153 to 155 of that 
work. Where in parentheses thus ( ), from those in the Nubecula major, pp. 156 to 163. 

Column 3 contains the classes and numbers of nebulae as given by my Father in hia 
three Catalogues in the Philosophical Transactions for 1786, 1789, and 1802. One only 
is omitted, viz. V. 35. It is an immense diffused nebulosity, extending from 5 1 ' 27 m to 
5 h 42 m in R.A., and from 98 6' to 87 43' in P.D. A special list of these great diffusions 
of nebula is given by M. ArwEBS in p. 42 of the work above cited. 

Column 4 contains references to other authorities, and gives either the name of the 
first discoverer of the nebula, or a reference to the particular list or catalogue of nebulae 
which has been taken as the authority for the place set down. The principal of these are 
1st. The list of "new nebulae" (Verzeichniss neuer Nebelflecke), in pp. 73 to 76 of the 
work of M. AUWERS already cited. These are referred to in the following form : Auw. 
N. 1, Auw. N. 2, &c. 2ndly. Under the form D'Arr. 1, 2, &c., are given a series of objects 
contained in a MS. list of 125 nebulae, kindly communicated to me by their discoverer, 
M. D'ARREST, Director of the Royal Observatory of Copenhagen, and reduced by him to 
the epoch (1860-0) of this Catalogue, with their precessions for 1880. 3rdly. A great 
number of nebulae cited under the form " R. novae," whose places have been approxi- 




8 SIB J. F. W. HERSCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

mately obtained from the diagrams accompanied by micrometrical measures of position 
and distance, or from more loose and general indications contained in Lord ROSSE'S 
paper in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861, the comparisons being in all cases 
made with those nebulae in my Catalogue of 1833 whose numbers stand annexed to 
them in column 2, with an italic letter appended, thus : 

322, a R. nova ; 319, a R. 3 novae. 

In cases of which latter kind it is intended to express merely that nebulae to the num- 
ber indicated, not otherwise identifiable, will be found on due search in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the place approximately set down. Lastly. The names of Professor 
G. P. BOND, Mr. S. COOLIDQE, and Mr. J. T. SAFFOKD in this column of the supple- 
mentary list of nebulae refer to the places of nebulas and clusters in a list of objects of 
that description discovered at the Observatory of Harvard College, obligingly commu- 
nicated to me by Professor BOND, Director of that establishment, too late for their intro- 
duction into the body of the Catalogue. 

Besides these references, in which the places set down have been adopted from the 
catalogues above mentioned, column 4 also contains synonyms or identifications of 
objects observed by myself with those contained in MESSIEE'S lists communicated to the 
French Academy, or to the Connoissance des Temps for 1783 and 1784. These are 
cited by the number they bear in MESSIER'S own list, thus, M. 1, M. 2, &c. They have, 
with very few exceptions, been observed and described by myself or my Father, and their 
places here set down are given as results from our observations. In the few excepted 
cases they are taken from M. AUWERS'S catalogue already spoken of. The nebulae also 
whose identity has been (sometimes satisfactorily, but for the most part very doubtfully) 
made out with objects in Mr. DUNLOP'S Catalogue of Southern Nebulae, are indicated by 
the letter A, thus, A. 169, &c. In a few cases, chiefly those of nebulous stars, planetary 
nebulae, or very star-like objects, which have been set down as stars in catalogues of 
authority ; these are also referred to by name and number in column 4. 

Many of Mr. DUNLOP'S nebulae are contained in LACAILLE'S catalogue, as also some of 
MESSIER'S, but of that catalogue two objects only, not so identifiable, viz. Nos. 38 and 
40 of M. AUWERS'S catalogue of LACAILLE'S nebulae, have been considered as definitely 
enough described (nebuleuses sans etoiles) by that astronomer to be inlcuded in the 
present Catalogue. 

Column 5 contains the Right Ascension in time for 1860-0 of each object in the 
Catalogue. When this is given to decimals of seconds, it is to be understood as having 
been brought up from the mean of the observations given in my former Catalogues, or 
from the mean of those (where not observed by myself) in Miss C. HERSCHEL'S Zone 
Catalogue above mentioned *. When the R.A. is given only to the nearest minute or 
degree, it will of course be understood that the place is too loosely determined to render 

* In some cases a careful subsequent revision of the catalogued observations seriatim has necessitated altering 
these K. A.'s by a few decimals of a second (seldom more) after the process of reduction to 1860. In all such cases 
the alteration has been applied as a correction to Mr. KERSCHNEB'S figures, so as not to disturb the amounts of pre- 
cession allowed a procedure perfectly legitimate and productive of no error. The same remark applies to col. 8. 



OF NEBULJE AJfD CLUSTERS OF STAES. 9 

further precision of statement other than illusory. This is the case with the greater 
part of those set down as " E. novae." 

Column 6 contains the precession, in seconds and decimals, in R.A for ISSO'O. 

Column 7 contains the number of observations in R. A. which have been actually used 
in concluding the R.A. for 1830, from which that for 1860 has been computed. In all 
cases (unless where the contrary is especially indicated in a note, or otherwise as by the 
letters B. A.C. or A.S.C., Au., &c. inserted in place of a number in the column itself which 
indicate that the R.A. is that of a star in one of those catalogues, or rests upon that 
other authority), the observations used for all objects included in my former catalogues 
are brought up from the data there registered, to the exclusion of all others ; and in 
such cases (the vast majority) no parenthesis or other distinctive mark is applied. When, 
however, no satisfactory R.A. is there recorded, or when the R.A. is there expressly 
stated to have been set down from the " working list," the R.A. adopted is that brought 
up from the Zone Catalogue of C.H., and in such cases the number of observations 
used is enclosed in parentheses ( ). Dots attached (:) indicate some uncertainty in the 
R.A. ; (::) a very considerable doubt, extending, perhaps, to a whole minute ; 1 and I? 
express still wider limits of uncertainty. In those nebulae of my Father's catalogues 
which have no number corresponding in column 2 (indicating the absence of any obser- 
vations of my own), the places set down both in R.A. and Declination are those brought 
up from the Zone Catalogue of Miss C. H., and the numbers of observations on which 
they rely are set down in the appropriate column without any parenthesis or distinctive 
marks, the absence of any number in column 2 being a sufficient indication. In the 
case of M. D'AKKEST'S nebulae, the numbers in column 6 enclosed thus [ ] indicate the 
number of his observations of the nebula employed by himself to give the place. 

Columns 8, 9, and 10 contain, in like manner, the North Polar Distance for 1860, the 
precessions for 1880, and the numbers of observations used for P.D. in the case of each 
object ; and the same remarks apply to these as to columns 5, 6, and 7. 

In column II is given a short description of the nebula or cluster in abbreviated 
words, made out from an assemblage and comparison of all the descriptions of each 
object given in my Father's and my own observations. As regards the former, recourse 
was had, not to the printed account in the Philosophical Transactions (which gives only 
a single description), but to a series of manuscript sheets in the nature of a REGISTER 
(and as such cited in the notes which follow this Catalogue), into which have been trans- 
cribed, verbatim, from the original sweeps, all the descriptive parts of each and every 
observation of each cluster or nebula in the order of their dates, and the data for com- 
puting their places, derived from the sweeps by applying the index and clock correc- 
tions pertaining to each. In this Register the nebulae are entered, each with its class 
and number, and each on a separate sheet ; the whole series being arranged, however, 
not hi the order of their classes and numbers, but in the order of the dates of their 
discovery, from No. 1, corresponding to October 28, 1783, to No. 2508, corresponding to 
September 30, 1802. Of these, the first 2500 only are included in the catalogues com- 

MDCCCLXIV. C 



10 SIE J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

municated to the Royal Society ; the other 8 are printed in the form of an Appendix to my 
Cape Catalogue, in p. 128 of the " Results of Observations," &c. A similar and separate 
Register in sheets has been kept for my Father's observations of MESSIEK'S nebulae, and 
these have in like manner been collated with my own observations of the same objects 
in framing the ultimate, or, as it may be termed, the average description of each. 

In making out these descriptions, it was found to a certain degree practicable, in the 
particulars of brightness, size, and extension, to make a kind of arithmetical approxima- 
tion to a mean conclusion, by arranging the degrees of brightness, &c. in a progressive 
upward scale from 1 to 10, and taking a mean of these numbers in each case, as indi- 
cating the designating words to be finally adopted. Thus, taking the extreme degree of 
faintness when a nebula was declared to be " excessively faint," or " barely visible," or 
" hardly more than suspected " for 1, and " extremely " or " excessively bright " for 10, 
the intermediate degrees, such as very faint, faint, considerably faint, pretty faint, 
pretty bright, considerably bright, Bright, very bright, were denoted by the intermediate 
numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ; and similarly for the scale of sizes, exchanging the words 
Small and Large for Faint and Bright. In the case of extension, the scale 1 to 10 was 
supposed arranged in the order, Round, very little extended, elliptic or oval, considerably 
extended, pretty much extended, much extended, very much extended, extremely extended, 
or a long ray. It is obvious that the qualifying words, such as " pretty" and " consider- 
ably," admit of a good deal of latitude of interpretation, and that, in reference to bright- 
ness or faintness, greatness or smallness, their meaning is rather relative than absolute ; 
and especially, that as between bright or faint, and " considerably bright" or "consider- 
ably faint," for instance, there is so little real distinction of an absolute kind, that it is 
impossible to say which is to be accepted as indicating the superior degree. In the case 
of extension there is the same indistinctness as to precedence between the qualifying 
phrases " considerably" and " pretty much." Nicety, however, in this respect would be 
misplaced, when it is considered that when several descriptions of the same nebula, 
observed at different times, come to be compared, they can hardly ever be reconciled 
except by allowing to each qualification a latitude of meaning extending over several 
degrees of our arbitrary scale. In many instances, indeed, the discordance, or rather 
contradiction is so great, as to authorize a strong suspicion of variability in the object 
itself. In a few cases where, from the low altitude of the object in England, coupled with 
corresponding discordances of description, it was evident that it must have been seen to 
much greater advantage from the Cape station (as, for example, in that of h. 3375 = H. 
III. 754), additional weight has been attributed to the Cape observations. 

In the descriptions, I have found it absolutely necessary to abstain from any specifi- 
cation of the estimated sizes of nebula? or clusters in angular measure. In comparing 
estimations of this kind I find the discordance so great, and (to speak only of my own 
practice) so little evidence of adherence to any definite standard of estimation, that 
nothing but confusion would have arisen from introducing such estimates. Never- 
theless, as in the use of such a catalogue as the present some guide is necessary for the 



OF NEBULA AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 



11 



observer, to advertise him of what sort of object he may expect to see, the following 
scale may be taken as conveying a general idea of the magnitudes intended by the con- 
ventional words used. Thus, a round nebula of 3" or 4" in diameter would be called 
extremely small ; 

one of 10" or 12", very small; 

20" or 30", small, or considerably small ; 

50" or 60", pretty small, or pretty large; 
3' or 4', considerably large, or large ; 
8' or 10', very large ; 

20' and upwards, extremely large. 

In estimating clusters of stars (that is to say, of well separated and scattered stars) a wider 
acceptation must be understood, so that, for instance, a cluster of only 1' in extent would 
be considered extremely or very small ; one of 15' or 20' large, and one of 30' or 40' very 
large. This amplification of scale, however, must not be held applicable to those 
resolved or resolvable clusters of a " globular " character marked in the descriptions 
as , which must be understood as belonging to " nebulae " and not to " clusters," so 
far as the conventional terms used in the descriptions are concerned. I should observe 
also, that when in making out the average appropriate phrase in size I have found any 
extravagant discordance between the estimate in words and that in figures, as, for 
instance, where a nebula has been described in words as. very large, and the diameter 
then set down as 2', a compromise has usually been made, and the word modified, as, for 
instance, to large or considerably large. 

The abbreviations employed in the column of descriptions and elsewhere, in the notes, 
&c., are as follows : 



ab. about. 

aim. almost. 

am. among. 

app. appended. 

att. attached. 

Auw. Auwers. 

A.S.C. Astronomical Society's Catalogue. 

b. brighter, 
bet. between. 
biN. binuclear. 

bn. brightest towards the north side. 

bs. brightest towards the south side. 

bp. brightest towards the preceding side. 

bf. brightest towards the following side. 

B. Bright. 

Br. Brisbane (Sir T.'s) Catalogue of Stars. 

Bo. Bode. 

B.A.C. British Association Catalogue. 

c. considerably. 
co. coarse, coarsely. 



ch. 

com. 

cont. 

C. 

Cl. 

C.G.H. 

C.H. 



d. 

'list. 

dif. 

difflc. 

D. 

D'Arr. 

A. 

def. 

e. 



chevelure. 

cometic. 

in contact. 

Compressed. 

cluster. 

" Results of observations, &c. at the Cape of 

Good Hope." 
Miss Carolina Herschel. When it occurs in 

column 4 it indicates that the object wag 

discovered by her. 
diameter, 
distance, 
distant, 
diffused, 
difficult, 
double. 
D'Arrest. 
Dunlop. 
defined, 
extremely. 



c2 



12 



SIE J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 



ce. excessively. 

er. easily resolvable. 

exc. excentric. 

E. extended. 

f. following. 

F. faint. 

g. gradually. 
gr. group. 

H. Sir "William Herschel. 

h. Sir John Herschel. 

h.o.n. list of omitted nebulae in C.G.H. 

i. irregular. 

inv. involved. 

involving. 

iF. irregular figure. 

L little (adv.). 

long (adj.). 

L. Large. 

Lac. Lacaille. 

Lai. Lalande. 

Lass. Lassell. 

m. much, 

mm. mixed magnitudes, 

mn. milky nebulosity, 

mon. monograph. 

M. Middle, or in the middle. 

M. (in col. 3) Messier. 

Mess. Messier. 

n. north, 

neb. nebula, 

np. north preceding, 

nf. north following, 

nr. near. 

N. nucleus, or to a nucleus, 

o. omitted. 

ON. omitted nebula, 

p. preceding. 

p. pretty (before F, B, L, S, <fec.). 

pg. pretty gradually, 

pm. pretty much, 

ps. pretty suddenly. 

P. poor. 

Pi. Piazzi. 

P.T. Philosophical Transactions. 

quad. quadrilateral, 

quar. quartile. 

r. resolvable, barely (mottled as if with 



stars). 



rr. partially resolved some stars visible. 

rrr. well resolved clearly seen to consist of stars. 

R. round. 

KB. exactly round. 

R. nova. New nebula discovered by Lord Rosse. 

R. MS. Manuscript notes furnished by His Lordship. 

Ri. Rich. 

R. The Earl of Rosse. 

s. suddenly. 

s. south. 

sp. south preceding. 

sf. south following. 

sc. scattered. 

st. stars. 

sev. several 

susp. suspected. 

sh. shaped. 

stell. stellar. 

S. small. 

sm. smaller. 

aw. sweep. 

S. Strove. 

tri-N. tri-nuclear. 

trap. trapezium. 

v. very. 

w. an intensive of v. 

var. variable. 

W. H. Sir "W. Herschel. 

Besides these abbreviations of words, the following 
arbitrary signs are used. 

* a star ; *10 a star of the 10th magnitude. 

* a double star ; J a triple star. 

! a remarkable object ; ! ! very much so ; ! ! ! a magni- 
ficent or otherwise exceedingly interesting object. 

? doubtful ; ?? very doubtful, either as to accuracy of 
place or reality of existence, according to the column in 
which it occurs. 

: , : : , see explanations already given. 

A a triangle. Forms a triangle with. 

a globular cluster of stars. 

O a planetary nebula. 

an annular nebula. 

st. 9 Stars from the ninth (or other) magnitude 

downwards. 

st. 9 .... 13 Stars from the ninth down to the 13th 
magnitude. 



As examples of the interpretation and expansion of these abbreviations some examples 
are subjoined. 



OF NEBULA AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 13 

Ex.1. pB; vL; vg, vsmbMN 15"; pmE162-3; " pretty Bright ; very Large ; at first 
very gradually, then very suddenly much brighter in the middle to a nucleus 15" in dia- 
meter ; pretty much extended the position of the longer dimension micrometrically 
measured 162-3 (i. e. reckoned from the north round to 162'3 in the direction nfsp)." 

The angles of position in all cases are to be understood as so reckoned. When deci- 
mals of degrees are annexed (or if integer, written decimally thus 151-0), they have been 
micrometrically measured. If thus, E or E 45, E 90, they mean only in or near the 
meridian, or parallel or oblique to the meridian from nf to sp, &c., as the case may be. 
If with a + annexed, the position is from a more or less careful estimation. 

Ex. 2. R; psbM ill def O; pB*10 125M, 70"; "Round, pretty suddenly brighter 
in the middle to an ill-defined planetary disc; has a pretty Bright star of the 10th 
magnitude, whose position measured from the centre of the nebula is 125*4, and 
whose distance also from the centre is 70" by estimation." 

The relative situations of neighbouring stars or nebula? are invariably to be understood 
as thus reckoned, i. e. taking the centre of the nebula or other object described as a 
starting-point or origin of angle or distance. Thus S*s will mean that a small star is 
south of the nebula, *np nr that a star is near the nebula in a north preceding direction 
from it ; %4 s f, 3'n, that a double star follows the centre of the nebula 4 seconds of time, 
and is 3' to the north of it. 

Ex. 3. Cl; pRi; pmC; L; st6, 10...15. "A cluster; pretty rich; pretty much 
compressed ; Large ; consisting of stars one of which is of the 6th, and the rest from the 
10th to the 15th magnitudes." 

Attached or vicinary stars or small nebula? are always placed at the ends of the descrip- 
tions. Thus sf means that the nebula described " has a globular cluster following 
and to the southward of it." When, however, the description of a cluster ends abruptly 
thus, %, it is to be understood that " the place taken is that of a conspicuous double 
star." 

The 12th column of the Catalogue contains the number of times that each nebula has 
been observed by both my Father and myself, whether its place were taken or not, com- 
prising all the cases in which the object has been seen, and whether described or not. 
Since attention has been drawn to the real or supposed variability of nebula?, and since 
it can hardly be doubted that comets have occasionally been observed as nebulae, this 
enumeration is not without its importance. In this column the abbreviation " mon " 
occasionally occurs. In such cases the nebula? have been so often and diligently observed 
for the purpose of exact delineation or " monographing," that a special enumeration of 
the observations would be impossible or useless. 

Finally, at the end of the line allotted to each nebula occur occasionally one or both 
of the marks * and f . The former refers to the notes appended to the Catalogue, the 
latter to the list of figured nebula? in which the publications wherein are contained 
figures of the nebulae are referred to by plate and figure those at least which seem 
entitled, in the present state of astronomical instrument-making and pictorial representa- 
tion, to be pointed out to the observer as conveying any idea of their appearance. 



14 SIB J. P. W. HEKSCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

Notes on the Catalogue. 
No. 

12 h. 5. D'Arrest says, " h. II. positio certe erronea," but gives no indication of the 

correction required in R.A. or P.D. 

29 h. 13; II. 241=11. 243. In P.T. the determining * is omitted, and in the state- 
ment of the places of these nebulae, as well as of II. 239, 240, 242, and III. 199, 
there is much confusion, for the correction of which see the list of errata sub- 
joined. Auwers has threaded the intricacies of this maze with singular felicity, 
but has been misled in the case of II. 243 into assigning to it a totally erro- 
neous place (22 h 48 m R A., 73 37' P.D. 1830), and, in consequence, has not per- 
ceived its identity with II. 241. 

78 II. 3. Auwers makes the P.D. of this neb. (1830)= 99 32', from P.T., which 
places it 2 n of 17 Ceti. C.H. makes it 1 51' n of the same star, or for 1830, 
99 42'. In fact H. has two observations of it, neither of them more than eye- 
drafts with neighbouring stars, and the P.D. is concluded graphically by C.H. 
from these diagrams. 

88 III. 876. The P.D. of Auwers (81 16') is 1 wrong. The place given in P.T. is 
1 43' n of 51 Piscium ; so also in Register (H. 2296). 

119 Auw. N. 4=D'Arr. 6. The place given is that brought up from D' Arrest's obser- 
vations, the R.A. being set down only roughly in Auw. 

132 h. 57= V. 20. Once looked for by Lord Rosse and not seen. Having been 
observed both by H. and h., there can be no doubt of its existence. 

138 h. 61 =h. 2345= V. 1. In h.'s sweep 733 the position reading is set down as 
324 0- 5. This is in contradiction with a diagram made at the time, and is an 
obvious mistake for 234-5, which =180 + 54'5, agreeing well with the dia- 
gram and with 2 obs. of W.H., in both of which it is described as "nfto sp." 
There is also an erratum in the C.G.H. Catal, for 143-8 read 144-5, since 
324-5-180=144-5. 

145 h. 64=11. 621=11. 703. Auwers remarks that A Ceti, the determining star of 
W.H., does not exist ; but C.H. has perceived this, and by using another deter- 
mining star (13 Ceti, sw. 756, W.H.), has fixed the place of the nebula II. 703 
for 1800 at R.A. O h 37 m 47 s , P.D. 93 53' (=93 43', 1830), thereby identifying 
it with II. 621. Auwers, using a conjectural star, sets down the P.D. erro- 
neously as 92 52' (1830). 

165 h. 2356. This is the main body of the nubecula minor. 

169 h. 2359. A complex object with several nuclei. There is an erratum in the R.A. 
set down in C.G.H. as resulting from sw. 488, for 46 m 12 S -1 read 47 m 12 S -1. 

177 79, a, b. In Lord Rosse's diagram, a=h. 79, /3=h. 78, y=nova, accidentally 
omitted in the body of the Catalogue, but inserted as No. 5058 at the end. 
The whole Catalogue having been finally numbered before the omission was 
detected, it could not be inserted in its place. & is a star; s=h. 79, a. 



OF NEBULJE AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 



15 



No. 

178 1 h. 4007, 4008, 4012. In the Catalogue of C.G.H. these nebula; are placed 

179 erroneously in the 23 h of R.A., owing to a mistake of a whole hour in 

196J reducing. 

202' 

203 These constitute the group laid down by Lord Rosse as seen in and about the 

205 places of h. 84, 85, 86, viz. his a, /3, y, /, &, e, , 6. Of these, a is No. 202 =h. 84 ; 

206 i3=No.203=h.85; y=No.206=h.86 ; y'=No.205=86,a; S=No.209=86,J; 

207 s=No.208=D'ArrestNo.lO; =No.207=D'Arr. 9, andtf=86,c. In the MS. 

208 notes furnished me by Lord R. it is stated that =h. 84, (3=h. 85, and 0=h. 86. 

209 The latter identification, however, is incorrect. 
210. 

214 h. 88=1. 54. This is not the I. 54 of the P.T., which proved to be one of 
Messier's nebulae, but another subsequently inserted by W.H., so as not to 
break the order of the numbers, as appears from a MS. correction in P.T., and 
from Register (H. 570). 

These constitute Lord Rosse's group seen in or near the place of h. 103, and 
marked in his diagram as A, j3, &, t, and another unlettered (which call y). 
These I identify as follows : A = No. 276 = h. 103; /3=No. 277 = 103, b; 
y=No. 275=103, a; S=No. 280=103, c; and s=No. 290=103, d. 



275 
276 
277 
280 
290 
297 
311 
317 
319 
325 



In reference to M. Auwers's remark on the nebulae 170, 171, as also 167, 168 
(H. class III.), after very careful examination of all the data, I can arrive at no 
other conclusion than that embodied in the present Catalogue under these Nos. : 
h. 118 is certainly not III. 171, neither is h. 120. Both places and descriptions 
disagree. 

313) h. 119 was taken for III. 556, but no R.A. was obtained, that set down being the 

314J R.A. brought up from C.H. The descriptions differ so materially, especially in 
the particular of extension, that they are most probably distinct nebuls. 

330 h. 124= VII. 48. Auwers remarks in his ' Verbesserungen zu A,' that this cluster, 
h. 124, is not nova, but VII. 48. This is correct. Re-examining sweep 216, I 
find an error of 1 committed in reducing the P.D. 

358 This is not in M. D' Arrest's final list, communicated to me in MS. ; but being set 
down by M. Auwers as No. 15 in his ' Verzeichniss neuer Nebelflecke,' I felt 
bound to retain it. 

418 h. 160=h. 2442=1. 62. This nebula, though set down by W.H. as of the 1st 
class (i. e. as a bright nebula), could not be seen by D'Arrest with the Leipzig 
Fraunhofer of 6-feet focus and 4^ inches aperture. It is marked in this Cata- 
logue, however, by a mean of 4 observations, only as " F." 

428 55 Andromedee. Although this star has been eight times examined by Lord Rosse 
without perceiving any nebulous atmosphere, yet as my observation is corrobo- 



16 SIK J. F. W. HEKSCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

rative of Piazzi's designation of it as " Nebulosa," it is retained for occasional 

future examination. 

442)11. 169, II. 221. The places agree almost exactly, but the descriptions are irre- 
444) concileable. One makes the nebula round, the other much extended. They 

are therefore almost certainly distinct nebulas, and there is therefore probably 

some error in the R.A. of II. 221. The neighbourhood is rich in nebulae (see 

the next note, however). 
4421 



444 



In Lord Rosse's diagram of the group about h. 169, assuming a to be h. 169 



4451- =No. 444, the others will be /3 = No. 445 = 169, a; y=No. 446=169, b; 

446 S=No. 447 = 169, c; and s=II.221. 

447 

462 h. 179=50 Cassiopeise. Retained in the Catalogue for future occasional obser- 
vation. Nothing can be more difficult than to verify or disprove the nebulosity 
of a considerable star under ordinary atmospheric circumstances. 

472 h. 184=111. 583. Though Lord Rosse on one occasion did not find this nebula, 
its existence cannot be doubted, having been found by h. nearly in the place 
assigned by C.H. 

487 h. 193=1. 152. M. D' Arrest found this nebula too faint for observation with the 
Leipzig refractor, though placed by W.H. in Class I., and standing in this Cata- 
logue (from a mean of 3 observations) as a " bright " nebula. 

501 h. 204=111. 604. C.H. and Auwers make the R.A. l m less. Both H. and h. rely 
on single observations. Sweep 188 h. examined and reduction found correct. 

510 h. 206=111. 457. Not found by Lord Rosse; once looked for. See notes on 
Nos. 472 and 132. 

516 h. 210=11. 246. Singularly enough, h. and H. are at issue about the two adja- 
cent stars, h. makes the stars south of the nebula ; H., on the contrary, places 
the nebula south of the stars, and says expressly that both this nebula and 
III. 201, observed just previously, were similarly situated with regard to their 
attendant stars. Now in h.'s obs. of III. 201 (No. 513) the attendant star is 
stated to be sf the nebula, and in that of II. 246 the larger of the two stars is 
south and only a very few degrees preceding. I believe the error to lie on the 
side of the older observations, as I have a diagram of the small star nearer to 
II. 246, sf, which shows that I made no mistake of n and s. 

536 I. 153. Auwers makes the R.A. for 1830 l h 28 45 s , whereas C.H. makes it 
2 h 15 m 13 s . The cause of the discordance lies in an erratum in P.T. (see list 
of errata). In C.H.'s reductions the error is corrected, and I find the correc- 
tion verified on reference both to the Register (H. 1488) and the original sweep 
(sw. 596). The nebula fo Hows (not precedes) the determining star. 
549 h. 226 = 1. 154. Auwers makes the R.A. of this for 1830, 2 h 23 m 8 s ; C.H. 



OF NEBULJ2 AND CLUSTERS OP STABS. 17 

No. 

2 h 20 57 S '8, by the observations in different sweeps differing only 18 s in R.A. 

The latter is the more correct ; so that M. Auwers's remarks on this nebula 

are not confirmed. The cause of the disagreement lies in a misprint in P.T. 

(See List of Errata.) 
5571 



558 



In Lord Rosse's description of this group, a=No.557=h. 231; |3=No.563=h.234; 



559 

561. 

notice. 



y=No. 558=231, a; &=No. 559=231, 1. The other nebula, " about 12' south 
following," is probably No.563=h.234. No.561=h.233 seems to have escaped 

563j 

571 h. 240=11. 238=111. 198. C.H. has overlooked or omitted an obs. of W.H. of 

III. 198 in sw. 574, which, referred to, confirms Mr. Marth's surmise that the 

nebulae are identical. 

573 II. 6. This was probably really a comet, as indicated by its description, having 

been subsequently looked for and not found. 

574 h. 244=1. 102. M. D'Arrest found this nebula, when observed with the Leipzig 

refractor of 4^ inches aperture, inferior to a 1st class nebula. In this Cata- 
logue, from a mean of 5 observations, it ranks as " considerably bright." 

591 h. 258=1. 1. M. D'Arrest found this nebula, when examined with the Leipzig 
refractor, not entitled to rank above the 2nd class. With this our present 
Catalogue agrees, it being set down from a mean of 8 observations as " pretty 
faint." 

614 This nebula of Bessel was also looked for and not found by D'Arrest, who there- 
fore supposes it to have been a comet. 

636 h. 280 = 11. 502. II. 502 is described by H. as eS; F; stellar. Either then the 
identity is doubtful, or some change must be suspected. The place, however, 
agrees well. 

639 h. 281 =IV. 43. Once looked for by Lord Rosse, but not found. (See notes on 
134, 472, 510.) 

646 h. 284=111. 578. The same remark. Twice looked for unsuccessfully by Lord 
Rosse. On one occasion clouds were passing. 

654)In Lord Rosse's diagram of this pair and the neighbouring stars y and S, the figure 

655 j is in contradiction with the measures. The position ofay, instead of 2, should, 

I presume, have been stated thus, ya=178, or, which comes to the same thing, 
ay= 2. This has been assumed in deducing the place of No. 655=289, a 
from No. 654=h.289. 

656 h. 291 = 111. 591. H. makes this nebula to be the nf of two, but both those of 

h. the sf. 
674 h. 293=11. 603. H.'s description is pB; stellar; a pc* with eS, vF chevelure. 

The place, however, agrees well with that of h. 293. 
684 III. 195. Auwers makes the R.A. (1830)= 3 1 ' ll m 50 s and C.H. 3 U 10"> 13; but 

MDCCCLXIV. D 



18 SIR J. F. W. HEBSCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

a misprint in P.T. (see List of Errata) accounts for the difference of the minute 
at least. 

708)111. 959; I. 60. The catalogued places contradict the described position sf and 

709J np ; but this is owing to the error in R.A. of I. 60, which D' Arrest makes less 
by 40 s , which would place I. 60 at 3 h 19 m 35 s (1860). 

710 Au. N. 17. The discovery of this nebula is attributed by Au. to Schonfeld in 
1858, but it seems to be identical with that described by Tuttle (Astronom. 
Notices, xix. p. 224). Auwers's place is preferred, Tuttle's being only approxi- 
mate. 

768 Au. N. 18. The celebrated variable nebula of Tempel, discovered Oct. 19, 1859. 

774 IL 594. Auwers considers this as identical with II. 548, with 1 mistaken in P.D. 

778 h. 309=1. 155. Auwers makes the E.A. of I. 155 for 1839 = 3 h 53' n 33', destroy- 
ing the identity of these two nebulae. But his place is deduced from an erro- 
neous entry in P.T. (see List of Errata). C.H., by 2 observations in sweeps 
608, 638 agreeing to 3 8 in R.A. and 2' in P.D., gives a place which, brought 
up to 1830, gives R.A. 3 h 37 m 58 s ; P.D. 94 29' 7". 

810. h. 311 =IV. 69. M. D' Arrest found the nebulous atmosphere around the central 
star of this nebula very conspicuous with the Leipzig 4^-inch refractor. 

826 h. 2618=IV. 26. D'Arrest's R.A. is preferred, that of h. 2618 being clearly 
shown to be erroneous. 

836 II. 464. The P.D. is given by W.H. as the same with that of 44 Eridani. 
C.H., using an erroneous place of this star, makes the P.D. 5' too small. 
This is here corrected, and the result agrees with Auwers. 

839 Auw. N. 20. This is the remarkable variable nebula discovered by Mr. Hind on 
Oct. 11, 1852. M. D' Arrest testifies to its complete disappearance on the 3rd 
and 4th of Oct. 1861, " Hujus nebulae ne umbram quidem detegere valeo." 
" Ccelo serenissimo regionem summa cura perlustravi adjuvante Dr. Schjel- 
lerup. Nebula reverd deest." (In 1855 and 1856 it was found by M. D' Arrest 
within 2' of Mr. Hind's original place.) On Dec. 29, 1861, it was seen by 
M. Otto Struve with the great Pulkowa refractor, but so excessively faint as to 
be barely within the power of that instrument. On March 22, 1862, with the 
same telescope, it was again seen, but considerably brighter, so as to bear a 
faint illumination of the wires. 

851 h. 314=111. 587. Not seen by Lord Rosse, once looked for, clouds passing. See 
notes on Nos. 639, 646, &c. 

880 h. 322. The bright star preceding is v Eridani. 

908 h. 333=11. 547. Not seen by Lord Rosse, once looked for. See notes 132, 
472, &c. 

926 h. 335. Erroneously identified in my Catalogue of 1833 with III. 453 (No. 981). 
See the note on that nebula. 



OF KEBULj; AND CLUSTERS Of STAES. 19 

No. 

953 h. 341 =D' Arrest 48. Observed by him as "nova," but since recognized as 
unquestionably =h. 341. 

970 VIII. 43. Auwers makes the P.D. of this cluster for 1830 =66 25', which is 
incorrect. The determining star is 109, n, Tauri, the cluster being 1 29' north 
of the star. This would give 66 39' for the P.D. for 1800, agreeing with 
C.H., and 66 36' for 1830. 

975 h. 343. A very large diffused nebulosity, distributed in zigzags. This has been 
looked for seven times by Lord Rosse and not found. Its existence is therefore 
very doubtful. 

979 h. 2709. The place graphically determined by measurement of a diagram, as 
compared with h. 2710. 

981 III. 453. This was erroneously identified with h. 335 in my Catalogue of 1833. 
By an unlucky coincidence, its place per working list, roughly brought up from 
C.H., agreed so well with the latter nebula as taken in sw. 322 (h.), that it was 
unhesitatingly assumed to be the same. It appears, however, that in C.H.'s 
reduction an error of 10 in R.A. has been committed, the star of comparison 
being 10 Orionis, and the nebula following the star by 5 m 7 s (as ascertained by 
reference both to the register sheet (H. 1160) and the original sweep(sw.462, H.)). 
M. Auwers, misled by my erroneous identification, has assumed that the nebula 
must have preceded the star, which would (nearly) account for the difference, 
and in consequence, his R.A. of this nebula is 10 m too small. C.H.'s error 
probably arose from misapplying in like manner the sign of the A . R.A. 

998 III. 268. Auwers's R.A. (4 h 57 m 23 s , 1830) is adopted in preference to 5 h O m 28% 
that brought up from C.H. to the same epoch. In the sweep 367 (H.) three 
stars of comparison are given, 58 Eridani, a Leporis, and 19 Leporis. The 
A. R.A. of a and 19 comes out correct, but that of 58 from each is wrong by 
3 m 5 s , so that the star must have been mistaken. C.H. has used 58 and a, and 
has rightly brought out the place of the nebula by the former (the wrong star), 
and wrongly by the right one ; and by an odd coincidence the two results agree 
well, though both wrong. 
1030 h. 349= VII. 4. Described by D' Arrest as " Ein Ausserordentlich reicher Hauf," 

an extraordinarily rich cluster. 

1133 h. 356. Looked for four times by Lord Rosse, in two of which the sky was 
fancied to have a milky appearance. 

1138) h. 2841. Double nebula. In my Cape Catalogue, sweep 538, for "first" and 

1139) "second" read "larger" and "smaller." The smaller is sp. The position 
260 is right. It is very remarkable that in sweeps 508, 522, 658, and 761 the. 
smaller of the two was not noticed. Is it variable ? 

1167 III. 747. Auwers makes the P.D. 8' 20" greater. It is difficult to identify the 
determining star used by C.H. 

D2 



20 SIE J. F. TV. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 



h. 2866, 2867, 2868, 2869. 16 s -2 added to all the R.A.'s of these nebula; in the 
Cape Catalogue to compensate an error detected in sw. 538. The correction is 
deduced from a comparison of the diagram fig. 20, PL VI. C.G.H. with the 
place of No. 1171. 



No. 
11651 
1168 
1171 
1174 

1179 h. 360. 3 s -3 added to h.'s P.D. to bring it to the place in B.A.C. 

1180 V. 30. The place of V. 30 corrected by + 3<"2 in R.A. and +25' 45"-4 in P.D. 

to bring it to the place of d 42 Orionis in the B.A.C. 
1183 h. 361=V. 31. h.'s place corrected by + O s -4 in R.A. and -0' 27"-2 in P.D. to 

bring it to that of / 44 Orionis in B.A.C. 
1185 III. 1. n There are two observations by H. of III. 1, but they differ enormously. 

One agrees with M. 43. The place of M. 43 is corrected to agree with its 

place in the Catalogue of Stars, &c. in the great nebula in Orion, C.G.H. p. 28. 
1191 Chacomac's recently discovered nebula. Place from Moigno's "les Mondes," 

No. 9, p. 241. 
1196 III. 269. Auwers gives as the R.A. of this nebula for 1830 6 h 27 m 57 s , which is 

mistaken by l h . The Philosophical Transactions says that it precedes 19 Leporis 

by 32 m 23 s , and that this is no misprint appears from C.H.'s reductions. 
1226 IV. 24. Annular according to Lord Rosse. 
1287 III. 270. Auwers places this nebula in R.A. 6 h 40 20 s , or an hour too late. Its 

place is very distinctly settled by two determining stars, a Leporis and 19 Leporis, 

the former of which it followed by 15 4 s , and preceded the latter by 20 m s . 
1425 h. 393=IV. 3. Lord Rosse's account of this nebula is extremely remarkable. 

"This h. 393," he says, "is an enormous nebulosity which I have traced f and 

n of it to a great distance some degrees. It narrows at times to a band across 

the finding eyepiece about 6' or 8'." 
1440 h. 401 =V. 27= VIII. 5. Retained as a cluster, though but a poor one. Nine 

times examined by Lord Rosse for nebulosity, but none seen. 
1452 III. 271. Auwers places this nebula in R.A. 8 h 3 ra 35 s , P.D. 76 21' (1830). There 

has been some mistake. III. 271 is stated to follow 8 (v3) Canis, 8 m s , and to 

be 4' n of that star, which gives a place agreeing with C.H. and with the present 

Catalogue. 

1454 h. 441 =M. 41. This nebula was also observed by Flamsteed. 
1455) In LordRosse's diagram of this group, is No. 1457=h. 410 ; /3=No. 1455=410, a ; 
1456 1 y=No. 1456=410, b; S=No. 1458=h. 409; and =No. 1460=410, c. But 
1457 \ some suspicion seems to have arisen that the principal nebulas observed were 



1458 
1460 



not really h. 409, 410, but h. 406, 407. In that case the identification will 
stand as follows : 

=No. 1448=h. 406. 

/3=h. 406-5 s -2 in R.A., and -1' 25" in P.D. 

y=No. 1449=h. 407. 



OF NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 21 

No. 

* = h. 406+1-6 in R.A., and -5' 6" in P.D. 
i =h. 406+14 s -7 in R.A., and -5' 2" in P.D. 

1480 h. 423. This nebula is entered by C.H. as VIII. 1. B, with a remark " not in print." 
1508 h. 439= VI. 6. The 11. A. is nearly 2 m in excess of C.H. and of Auwers. 
Examined sweep (h.) 393 in which it was observed. Found all clear and 
correctly reduced. 

1527} 

Compared with Lord Rosse's two diagrams of the nebulae composing this group- 
None of them are "novas." a=h. 449; /3=h. 448 ; y=h. 447; &=|3; e=y; 
looU 

153l) ^ =h - 44C ' 

1533 VIII. 44. Auwers's P.D. is 84, instead of 82, owing to an erratum in P.T. (See 
List of Errata.) 

1578 h. 468=111. 479. No nebulosity seen by Lord Rosse in 5 observations. In H.'s 
single observation the nebula is " suspected," and in those of h. it is not posi- 
tively ascertained. The object seems therefore to be merely a small resolved 
cluster of vFst. 

1594. M. 47. Auwers assigns a R.A. greater by 4. The cluster has not since been 
observed. It is probably a very loose and poor one. 

1611 h. 480= VI. 37. h.'s P.D. corrected by 10' as the presumed error of reading 
in the single observation obtained. Harding in 1827 (it appears) observed its 
P.D.=100 10' (for 1830), and W.H.'s place for that epoch is 100 12', that of 
h. being 100 19' 4". 



1615 
1616 
1617 



In Lord Rosse's diagram, a=No. 1617=h. 483; /3=No. 1616=D'Arr. 51; 
y=No. 1615=483, a. D'Arrest's place for (3 is preferred to that which results 
from comparison with the diagram, h. 284 could not have been in the field, 



being almost a degree distant. 
1633 h. 493=11. 719. h.'s R.A. in P.T. diminished by l m for an error of l m detected 

in the reduction of the observation. This brings it nearer to Auwers. 
1652 h. 3176. Polarissima Australia. This nebula is so near the south pole that its 
precession in R.A. varies from year to year with great rapidity, so that its R.A. 
cannot be computed correctly by the ordinary approximate method. 
1666 ] The four nebula? h. 508, 510; 510, <z; 510, I evidently include among them that 
1667 \ third nebula referred to by Lord Rosse as the accompanying " nova " " forming 
1668] a triangle with h. 507, 508 of the last degree of faintness." h. 507, however, 
is 30 distant in P.D., so that in the observation of Feb. 9, 1850, the P.D. of 
h. 507 must doubtless have been read as 36 instead of 66, giving rise to a 
mistaken identity with one of the two really new nebula? at that time in view. 
1696 III. 50. I find a memorandum to the effect that this nebula is lost, and was pro- 
bably a comet; but I cannot recover my authority for the statement. It is 
described by H. as " of the last degree of faintness," and it is therefore no way 



22 SIB J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

surprising that it should not have been again perceived without some time and 
trouble bestowed, and in clear weather. 

1707 h. 52711. 48. M. Auwers, owing to an erratum in P.T. (see List of Errata), 
makes the TLA. of II. 48 two minutes too great, and is thus led to doubt its 
identity with h. 527. There still remains the rather considerable disagreement 
of 5' in P.D. D' Arrest found neither of these nebulse ; but there can be no 
doubt of the existence of one at least, in or near the place here given. This is 
not the nebula seen by Lord Rosse " nearly in contact with h. 526." This latter 
(described already by h. as " bi-nuclear ") was seen by R. as distinctly double. 

1712 h. 531 =M. 67. Discovered by Oriani. 

1720 h. 535=11. 823. W.H. describes this nebula as "Round;" h. as "much ex- 
tended," while Lord Rosse saw it as bi-nuclear, or a double nebula joined by 
faint nebulosity. Is it separating into two, like Biela's comet I 

1735)h. 542 and II. 557. The descriptions are irreconcileable, and they must be two 

1736) distinct nebulae. The R.A. of h. 542 was not observed, and its P.D. is set down 
as " hardly more than conjectural," having been looked for by working list as 
II. 557 and set down as such. 

1742 h. 545=11. 834. Misprinted II. 844 by Auwers in the Catalogue, but the num- 

ber is correct in his general list of the nebulse by numbers and classes. 

1743 h. 546. Not seen by Lord Rosse in one observation. Examined sweep 21 (h.) and 

found all right. 
1756 III. 291=D'Arr. 60. These are assuredly one and the same nebula. Auwers's 

declination of III. 291 (+27 7') should be +26 7'. 
1773 h. 565=111. 61. The P.D. according to H. is 70. 
1788 II. 708. Owing to an erratum in the determining star in Phil. Trans, (see List of 

Errata), Auwers has given the place of this nebula for 1830 R.A. 9 h 12 39 s ; 

P.D. 39 17', instead of 9 1 ' 6- 29 s ; 47 20'. 

1791) 

...rq , rh. 577; h. 578. Not seen by Lord Rosse in one observation. (See next note.) 

1792 D' Arrest 62. This nebula must surely be variable, as it is inconceivable else that 
it should not have been seen by h., when h. 578, to which it is almost close, 
was observed and its place taken. D'Arrest says, " Fugerat Herschelium nec- 
non me anno 1862." Neither of the three (Nos. 1791, 1792, 1794) were seen 
by Lord Rosse. Sweep 59 (h.) and the reductions re-examined. Found all clearly 
written and all correct. 

I8041h. 581, 582; 581, a, b, c, d, 582,a,b,c,d,e,f,g; D'Arr. 63. Of this very complex 
group of 15 nebulse or "knots" (as they are called by Lord Rosse), six have 



-{'017 

1818 

U321 



been determined from his diagram, and six more by the aid of notes subse- 

' q uen tly furnished me from the records of the observatory at Birr Castle, con- 

taining differences of R.A. and P.D. from one or other of .the former. These 



OF NEBULA AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 23 

No. 

are indicated by the letters MS. attached in the column of descriptions. The 
others I identify as follows : 

a (in Lord R's diagram) is No. 1813=582, c. 
ft 1812=582, ft. 

y 1811=h. 582. 

& 1806=h. 581. 

e 1815=582, e. 

1821 =582, </. 

One of those for which no data are given must have been D'Arr. 63, and the 
two remaining ones are included under the entries Nos. 1817, 1818 as 582, /'. 
1832 h. 590. Not seen by Lord Rosse; once looked for. Re-examined the sweep and 

reductions. Found all correct. 

1868 h. 3171. In the omitted observations of nebulae in the last page of the C.G.H. 
observations, for h. 3170 read h. 3171; and this observation, combined with 
the two in the body of the work, gives the mean result for 1830 employed to 
deduce the place in the present Catalogue. 

1911 h. 3185=111. 289. In consequence of a misprint in P.T. (see List of Errata), the 
P.D. of Auwers is 5' too small. Corrected by this, his place agrees well with 
my observation. 

1953 M. 81 1 ? A nebula observed by W.H. as described, but differing most materially 
in place from M. 81. It would certainly be very extraordinary should three 
nebulae so extremely remarkable as M. 81 and 82 and this be found to lie so near 
together. 

19591h. 3198, 3202 are distinct nebulae, and were observed consecutively in one and 
1962J the same sweep sw. 561 (h.). 

1960 )h. 3199 and 3201 are also distinct nebulae, and were observed consecutively in 
1961 ) sweep 562 (h.). 

1974 III. 293. M. Auwers makes the place of this nebula 9 h 24 4 s ; 66 30' (1830), 
instead of 9 h 48 m 48 s ; 60 13'. The cause of the error is an erratum (see List) 
in P.T., where the determining star is set down as 23 Leonis instead of 23 Leonis 
Minoris, another of the instances of confusion arising from the use of this silly 
and barbarous nomenclature. 
2014 h. 669=111. 65. Not seen by Lord Rosse in one observation. It was found by 

h. in its place per working list. 
2019 h. 672. Not seen by Lord Rosse in one observation. Examined the sweep and 

reductions, and found all correct. 

2043 h. 250. This nebula is so very close to the North Pole, that its place cannot be 
calculated by a precession proportional to the time in the usual approximate 
mode, the R.A. changing from year to year with extreme rapidity. 



24 SIR J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 



No. 

2054' 
2055 

2057 
2058 



In Lord Rosse's diagram, =No. 2058=h. 692=11. 44; /3=No. 2061=h. 693 
=11. 45; y=No. 2055=692, 1; &=No. 2054=D'Arr. 61; g=No. 2057=692, c, 
not lettered in the diagram. 

2088 III. 28, 29. Both D'Arrest and Secchi agree in placing this double nebula more 

2089; to the south than W.H. by 15'+, and D'Arrest supposes the P.D. to have been 
misread to that extent. As so great a proper motion is most improbable, and 
the identity is indisputable, I have adopted this supposition and made the neces- 
sary correction. 

2094 h. 706. Not seen by Lord Rosse in 6 observations. Re-examined the record of 
the original obs. Sweep 115 (h.), No. 68, and the reductions. The entries are 
all clear and perfectly legible. Reduction in P.D. correct ; reduction in R.A. 
erroneous by O m 26 s -6. This, however, could not have caused its non-obser- 
vation by R. This then was a comet, or is a lost nebula. The error of reduction 
is corrected in the present Catalogue. 

2111 III. 316. C.H.'s reduction of this nebula being affected with a considerable error,, 
Auwers's R.A. is adopted, after verification. 

2144 h. 3276. Place approximate, by equatoreal zone review. 

2189 h. 745=V. 52. Not seen by Lord Rosse when once looked for (see note on 
No. 132, &c.). 

2192 h. 3294. The minute in R.A. doubtful. 

2197 h. 3295. The great nebula about ;j Argus. According to a letter from Mr. Eyre 
B. Powell of Madras, a most extraordinary change has taken place in this nebula 
since my figure of it was delineated. He states that the southern end of the 
curious oval vacuity close to the great star, which was decidedly closed when I 
depicted it, is now decidedly open. Should this be established, it will be the 
most extraordinary fact that has yet appeared in the history of a nebula. 

.2201 h. 754=11. 99. M. D'Arrest found this nebula in the Leipzig refractor, bright 
enough to be ranked in the first class. And it is marked as " very bright " in 
this Catalogue by a mean of 5 observations. It must have been ill seen in the 
earlier observation when classed as II. 

2231)IV. 6=11. 131 and h. 777=111. 88. I adopt, on due consideration, the opinion 

2234) of Auwers, that III. 88 and II. 131 are not the same. Their having been 
successively observed in the same sweep is decisive. Also, that IV. 6 is not 
III. 88, but in reality identical with II. 131. The descriptions are made out 
in conformity with this. 

2233VL 118 and h. 779. The degree of P.D. is probably mistaken in I. 118. Marth, 

2236) according to Auw., suggests that the determining star 46 Ursse (which though 



OF NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS OF STAES. 25 

No. 

not so called in B.A.C., is doubtless No. 3741 of that catalogue) was mistaken, 
and should have been called 46 Leonis minoris. Consulting the original sweep 
(sw. 487, H.), I find this surmise not corroborated ; for the nebula, when reduced 
by the star next preceding it (37 Leonis minoris), gives the same Polar distance, 
and, within a few seconds, the same II. A. But there is some faint indication of 
the figure G in the reading of the Polar distance piece 5G 55' having been written 
over a 7, which would have thrown the nebula somewhat below the southern 
limit of the sweep, and might have caused a suspicion of error at the -time. I 
found no nebula in the catalogued place in my sweep No. 337 (h.), so that the 
probability of an erroneous degree is strengthened. At the same time, it is not 
impossible that this nebula may be identical with No. 223G=h. 779, the mis- 
take in the degree lying the other way. 

2238 h. 780=1. 172. h., in Ph.Tr., suggests that this nebula may have moved. There 
is, however, no ground for this supposition, as its place agrees quite remarkably 
with that brought up from C.H. But query if the double star have not moved, 
since one of the observations places it " in the middle," and a subsequent one 
makes the southern extremity of the nebula touch the large star of the double 
star. 

2276 h. 806=11. 101. Found to rank as a first-class nebula by M. D' Arrest with the 
4|-in. Leipzig refractor. In this Catalogue it stands described as " very Bright," 
by a mean of 4 observations. See remark in note 2201. 

2310 h. 823=111. 111. There is a strange amount of discordance between the observed 
and reduced places of this nebula. Auwers makes the P.D. for 1830=84 29'. 
C.H. has reduced the single observation of W.H. by two stars 84, r Leonis 
and 349 Bode Leonis, and her results differ by 10'; r, which gives the greater, 

being stated to be " too far distant in P.D." The several results stand thus: 

> 

P.D. 1830, by Auwers 8l 29 

by r Leonis (C.H.) ... 84 20 

by h. obs 84 15 

by 349 B. Leonis (C.H.) . . 84 9 

My observed P.D. is nearly a mean between those of C.H. 
2315 h. 828=11. 42. Not seen by Lord Rosse when once looked for (see notes on 

No. 132, &c.). 
2319 h. 829 = 111. 351. The observations of this nebula, which are numerous, disagree 

so very remarkably in the particular of brightness, that a considerable suspicion 

of variability exists. 
2373 h. 854=M. 65. There is a misprint, 45 for 75 np to sf, in the position of 

extension in my Catalogue of 1833. The diagram in the original sweep also 

corroborates this, as does also the figure (fig. 53) accompanying that Catalogue. 

1IDCCCLXIV. E 



26 S,Ut J. r. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

W.H. twice says mE in merid. (180) h.'s position 75 P np to sf=105; a mean 
of those of Winnecke and Auwers =172. 

2377 h. 857, h. 875; M. C6. No doubt these are the same. fig. 54 P.T. 1833 corro- 
borates their identity. The accompanying stars and their positions agree 
entirely. The R.A. of h. 875, however, requires to be corrected by 3 m , 
allowing the seconds and the P.D. observed in that observation their weight. 

2382 II. 30. Auwers deduces his RA. for 1830 (ll h 12 m 21 s ) from the statement in 
E.T. "following 68, Leonis, 6 m SO 9 ." C.H. from the same data concludes 
R.A. ll h ll m 31 s (also for 1830). The latter is (within 2 s ) the correct result. 

2388 h. 867=h. 861 1 These are very probably the same. But as, after all, the difference 
of the observed R.A.'s is sufficient to have allowed one to escape while observing 
the other, so that they may be different, and as moreover one is described as 
" Round," and the other as " extended," both are retained. 

2405 h. 882=1. 20. This nebula would seem to have decreased in brightness. The 
bright * is 1341. A.S.C. 

2411 h. 886 = 1. 131. Ranked by M. D'Arrest in the second class with the 4|-inch 
Leipzig telescope. In this Catalogue it stands as " pretty Bright " from a mean 
of three observations. 

2417 III. 112. Auwers has reduced this nebula by the star given in P.T. <p, 74 Leonis. 
But I find a MS. note that this star was not dependable, and that Mayer's 
No. 510 is the proper determining star. The nebula was subsequently looked 
for and found, not in the place given by <p, but 8' from the P.D. concluded 
from Mayer 510. A mean of these two determinations is therefore used in this 
Catalogue. 

2440 h. 907=111. 353. Auwers doubts the identity of these nebulae. But this is in 
consequence of a misprint in P.T. (see List of Errata), 53 m for 43 m . The error 
is found also in the Register Sheet (H. 937), but C.H. has avoided it and used 
43 m in her reduction so as to give a R. A. agreeing within 35 s with that of h. 907. 

2461 h. 918=11. 784. Lord Rosse, in his observation of this nebula, mentions 
" another brush-like, 20' np." This was no doubt II. 783=No. 2454. 

2501 h. 945=1. 94. W.H. makes this nebula by one observation extended, n to s, 
by another nf to sp, while h. has two observations agreeing in making it extended 
in the parallel. Surely it does not rotate 1 

2540 h. 967. l m added to the R.A. It is evidently the first of the group of 4. 

2577 III. 113. This nebula is reduced also in Auwers's catalogue by <p Leonis, the star 
set down in P.T. But C.H. remarks that <p was above the sweep, and otherwise 
observed under unfavourable circumstances, and Mayer's 510 zod. star. s. 31 
is preferred, which gives a result differing by +24' in P.D. and 48 s in R.A. 
The place adopted in the present Catalogue is in conformity with this remark. 
(See note on No. 2417.) 



OF JTEBULJE AND CLUSTERS OF STAiRS. 27 

No. 
25-91 h. 1000=111. 616. The star 6m, 5' n only noticed by W.H. The other 7m, f in 

the parallel only by h. Are there really two stars ? and are they both variable 1 
2597 h. 1002=1. 203. Auwers, in consequence of an erratum in P.T. (see List of Errata), 

makes the R.A. of this nebula 7 m too small. The error is corrected in the 

Register (H. 1889) and in C.H.'s reduction. 
2604 h. 1009=1. 202. The same misprint in P.T. mentioned in the last note on 

h. 2597 has also vitiated M. Auwers's R.A. of this nebula. It is corrected in 

the Register Sheet (H. 1886) and in C.H. 
2608 h. 1013=111. 381. I adopt Mr. Marth's identification of these nebulae. The 

place of III. 381 in the catalogue of C.H., from which my working lists were 

made out, is vitiated by some great mistake. The P.D. is supposed to be 

derived from 1 Comae, the neb. being 1 12' south of the star. This, however, 

would give 68 9' 29" for 1830 instead of 65 45' 0", that brought up from C.H. 
2650 h. 1039. This cannot be identical with h. 1036, and its brightness precludes its 

being accepted as III. 354. But there is extreme uncertainty as to its P.D. 

The degree may even be wrong. 

2652 h. 1041 = 11. 733. According to W.H. the position of extension is "near the 

meridian." If meridian be not a mistake for parallel it has changed, h. has a 
measure 62- 3, and an estimation 65 in another observation. 

2653 h. 1042. This cannot be III. 3, as C.H. has reduced two obs. of this latter well 

agreeing, and giving a R.A. 2 m exceeding that of h. 1042, which also rests on 

2 obs. of h. 
2668 h. 1050 = 1. 253. The difference of descriptions is extraordinary, so that they 

seem hardly to pertain to the same object ; but the places agree. 
2683' 
2684 
2685 
2686 
.-2689 
2690 
2693 
2694 
2697 
-2699 
2701 
2702, 
2730 II. 14. Owing to an erratum in P.T. (see List of Errata) Auwers gives quite an 

erroneous place for this nebula (ll h 39" 27 s R.A., 81 9' P.D. 1830). 
-2747 h. 1103==HL 814. A.uwers suspects some error of the press, since his P.D. for 

1830. coiaea -out .36. 58', while that of h. 1103 is 35 56'. There is, however, 

E2 



h. 1062, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 1070, 1, 3, 5, in. 391, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. The places set down 
for the nebulas of this extensive group are made out by a most careful consider- 
ation .of all the observations and records in the sweeping books which seem 
irreconcileable with a group of six nebula? only. The group, however, needs a 
thorough re-examination. 



28 SIR J. P. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

no error, either of printing, registry, or reduction in any part of the older work. 
The determining star is rightly set down as 5 Canum, whose P.D. for 1800 (the 
epoch of C.H.'s catalogue) is 37 19' 42", and III. 814 is declared to be 1 32' 
north of it, so that 35 48', the P.D. of C.H., is correct, and reduced to 1830 
(=35 58') agrees with my place within 2'. Neither is there any error of the 
press or of reduction, or any apparent mistake of a clerical nature in all the 
process of h. 1103, and the nebula observed is set down in the sweeping book 
(of course from the working list) as III. 814. I consider their identity there- 
fore as fully established. 

2771 jh. 1211=11. 372. II. says, the most northerly of the pair II. 372, III. 360 the 

2773J largest: h., "by diagram," makes the following nebula, III. 360=No. 2773, 
the larger of the two. 

2814 II. 109. The reductions of the sweep 187 (H.) in which this occurs are somewhat 
precarious, and in C.H.'s revision of the sweep the A. P.D. from 6 Comse is set 
down at 1 50', that in the P.T. at 1 54' (these changes are never made without 
good reason), and this accounts for 4' out of the 5' difference between her P.D. 
and that of M. Auwers. 

2846 III. 535. In a sweep two years subsequent to the obs. of this nebula by H. it 
was looked for again but not found. ? if a comet. 

2849 D'Arr. 89. M. D'Arrest makes mention in a letter which he has done me the 
honour to address to me, of a nebula having the same R.A. as this, but a P.D. 
(1860)= 83 46' 42". He does not include it in his final list. It should, how- 
ever, be looked for. 

2852^ h. 1183, 7, 9,1190, 4; II. 568, 9, 570, 1, 2, 3. There cannot be a doubt that 



2856 
2857 
2862 
2865 
2869 



II. 568, 569, 570, 571, are in 82 P.D., and II. 572, 3, in 83. It is equally 
certain that h. 1183, 1189, 1190, 1194 are in 83. They were observed in two 
distinct sweeps (sw. Ill and 238); I observed also II. 572 in sw. 238, and III. 
573 in sw. 250. There must be a set of nebulae, at least 8 in number, hereabouts. 



KB. W.H. makes II. 568, 569, 570, 571, 34' n. of 11 Virginis. If n. be a 
mistake for s, these agree with h. 1187, 1189, 1190, 1194. 

2855 h. 1186=1. 90=11. 322. Marth's conjecture is right (see Auwers's note on I. 90) 
as regards II. 322, but not so his conclusion that II. 322=11. 377. 

2878 h. 1202=1. 139=M. 61. Discovered by Oriani. N.B. The first discoverers of 
the nebulae in Messier's list, when not Messier himself, are mentioned by 
M. Auwers in his catalogue of those nebulas (pp. 66-71), except in the cases of 
Oriani's nebula:, M. 14], 181, 351, 61, 67. 

2884 1202, a. Under h. 1196 and 1202, two nebulae, unidentifiable, are described as 
companions, but there must be some great error in Lord Rosse's account of 
them, as the place of one is referred to a scarlet star " 10' south of a scarlet 
star R.A. 12 h 25'." Now h. 1202 is in R.A. 12 h 14 m . To afford a fair chance 



OF NEBULA AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 29 

No. 

of reobserving them, the companion 10' nf h. 1202 is entered here as 1202, , 
and that south of the scarlet star, under No. 3060 as 1196, a. 

2892 D'Arr. 90. " Reperta a me Mart. 4, 1862. Eandem reperit Schonfeldus, April 1, 
1862. Vide Comptes Rendus, &c." 

2951 II. 87. This may be h. 1240, but 7' in P.D. is a large error. 

2961 h. 1253=M. 86. The nebula of Lord Rosse 14' sp this is no doubt IT. 168. 

2976 h. 1261=111. 492. III. 492 was looked for April 11, 1787, by W.H. in the 
place assigned to it, but was not seen. Auwers, however, makes it identical 
with h. 12G1. Yet the descriptions are radically different, and after all there 
may be another nebula, the real III. 492, in the neighbourhood. 

2992|R. novae. 1274, a; 1275, a. Of the eleven " knots " seen by Lord Rosse in this 

2995J place these two are the only really "novae." The other 9 were h. 1237, 1244, 
1250 (1 & 2), 1253, 1259, 1274, 1275, and Auw. N. 30, numbered in this 
Catalogue 2931, 2949, 2955, 2956, 2961, 2965, 2974, 2991, 2994. h. 1203, 
numbered by Lord Rosse as one of the group, seems too far remote in R.A. to 
have been seen on that occasion. 

2999 h. 1279 = 11. 156. H. says " F;" h. " vB." The latter preferred, since F might 
arise from fog or haze. 

3003 h. 1282. II. 56 and II. 90. Both II. 56 and II. 90 were seen in one sweep, 
March 1, 1784, at l m interval of time (by the same star, 25 Comae), II. 56 
being 1' more north, and II. 90 3' more south than the star. This is a case of 
positive disappearance, for in sweep 334 (h.) the neighbourhood was carefully 
examined and only one nebula found. 

3008 I. 23. By s Virginis, sw. 174 ; n. 1 31'; .-. P.D. (1830) 77 18' 29". By 34 Vir- 
ginis in sw. 199, s. 19', whence P.D. = 77 25' 33", mean 77 22'. Auwers 
makes it 77 16'. This nebula is placed in the 2nd class by M. D' Arrest as 
seen with the Leipzig refractor. In this Catalogue it is set down from a mean 
of two observations, as " pretty bright." 

3011 h. 1289=11. 212=11. 750. The two nebula? so designated were not observed 
by H. in one sweep, and are, no doubt, identical. 

3013 h. 1290 = 11. 122=11. 174. These two nebulas of the 2nd class were also not 
observed by H. in the same sweep, and are presumed to be identical, as the 
places agree. 

3021 h. 1294=M. 49. Discovered by Oriani in 1771. 

3026 h. 1295 = 11. 117=11. 629. The same remark applies as in the notes on Nos. 
3011, 3013. 

3029 II. 116. Not seen by D'Arrest. 

3043 h. 1307=1. 83. Not found by Lord Rosse when once looked for. There can be 
no doubt, however, of its existence in or near this place. 

8060 1196, a=R. nova. See note on No. 2884. 



$0 8IK J. T. W. HEESOHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

S075 h. 1329=1. 31=1. 38. H. describes I. 31 as "between two bright stars." The 
places differ 15' in P.D. ; h. describes I. 38 (the place well agreeing with that 

, f r of H,) in one observation as having a large star f, and in two others as having 

a star 9m, p ; that is, in effect, as lying between two bright stars. N.B. The 
star used for I. 31 is 31 d 1 Virginis, and for I. 38, 32 d 2 Virginis. The decli- 
nation of 31 d I is 30' wrong in A.S.C. (No. 1469). In B.A.C. it is right. The 
P.D.'s of the two nebulae of H. differ, as already remarked, by 15'. The R.A/S 
agree. They must be identical with a mistake of 15' in I. 31. D' Arrest says 
,he is sure there are not two nebulae here. 

3078 III. 26. Place as per C.H., 12 h 25 32 s , 68 32' for 1830 ; as per Auwers, 

12 h 25 m 40 s , 68 47' (see List of Errata). The correction of the place in P.T. 
is not, properly speaking, an erratum, but the substitution of a good observa- 
tion for a bad one. In the obs. sw. 177 (H.), where 20 Comas was used as 
the determining star, the place is given only by description. In a sweep long 
subsequent (sw. 944) it was compared with 26 Coma? in the regular form of 
observation, and this is of course to be preferred. Auwers's place is deduced 
from the earlier, and that of C.H. from the later observation, rejecting the 
other. 

3079 h. 1322 = 8 Canum. This very remarkable object occurs among the list of those 

observed by Lord Rosse in his paper in P.T. 1861, but without a word of 
remark or description ; and it does not occur among his list of nebulosities 
looked for but not perceived. Surely it might be inferred from this that the 
nebulosity surrounding the star was seen, or its absence would have been noticed, 
as in the instance of 55 Andromeda?. Yet Mr. Lassell saw no nebulosity about 
8 Canum. 

3097 h. 1348=M. 89. Lord Rosse has h. 1343 and 1348, and in his account of them 
says, "two others, about 20' s. of 1348 ;" one of these must have been h. 1343, 
and the other h. 1349. 

8103 h. 1353 = 1. 119. This nebula was barely perceptible, with straining the atten- 
tion, by M. D'Arrest with the 4^-inch Leipzig refractor. It is described in this 
.,.' Catalogue as "considerably bright" by two observations. 

3108)11. 1358, 1359, 1363=IV. 8, 9. The obs. of 1363 in my Catalogue of 1833, in 

3109 J which the R.A. is uncertain, undoubtedly refers to the same very remarkable 
double nebula, IV. 8, 9. D'Arrest is sure that there is no other double nebula 
in this neighbourhood. 

3111 M. 90. The place is from two observations by W.H., as also the description. 

3127 h. 1374=1. 273. The descriptions of H. differ: s~o much that it is not impossible 

j '. .. r : .there may be another bright nebula near this place. 

3138 h. 1379=11. 577: , Two diagrams by h. in sweeps 141, 143, agreeing, represent 
this nebula as making a considerably acute-angled, nearly isosceles, triangle with 



OF NBHULJL AND CLUSTERS OF STABS. 31 

So. 

two following stars. H. says, " Between two Bright stars, making a triangfe 
with them." No one now, looking at those diagrams, would call the situation 
of the nebula between the stars. A suspicion of proper motion arises in such 
a case. 

3148 h. 1384=11. 148. In my Catalogue of 1833 this nebula is identified with II. 20. 
and in the Register Sheets (H. 320), under the head of II. 148, there is a memo- 
randum, " Probably the same as II. 20 (H. 47)." But on examining all the 
observations of both nebula?, I arrive at the conclusion that they are different, 
II. 20 being nearly 2 m later in R.A. 

3170 h. 1401. Query if not =11. 38, with one degree mistaken in P.D. 

3174 See note on 3148, above. 

3177 h. 1406, 1407=11. 794 (1 & 2), III. 778; h. 1428, 1435=11. 795, 796. Auwers 

3179 remarks, and justly, on the great apparent discordance of the observations of h.' 
3206 and his places of II. 794, 5, 6, and those of W.H. The fact is that the places 
3216 of these in the P.T. all rest on comparisons with s Ursae in sweeps 921 and 
3224) 1001 (H.); and the observation of that star has been erroneous or mistaken in 

sw. 921 by about 11' in P.D., as appears from an obs. of 73 Ursa? in the same 
sweep. The nebula? affected by this error are those here enumerated, and it 
requires very careful consideration to disentangle all the observations of each 
nebula by both stars, and to decide on their identities. My final conclusions 
are, 1st, that in these sweeps two distinct nebula?, II. 794, 1 and II. 794, 2, 
were observed, and confounded together under one number ( = 11. 2079 register). 
These are my h. 1406, 1407. 2ndly, that h. 1407 and III. 778, II. 795, 796 
are correctly determined in sw. 1001 (H.). 3rdly, that in sw. 921 (H.) the 
nebula set down as II. 794 was not the same as that called II. 794 in the 
reduction of sw. 1001 ; i. e. that it was in fact h. 1406, and that in this obser- 
vation there is also an error of 6' in P.D., or that, if not, there must be still 
another nebula in P.D. 33 54' (1860). Finally, that the place of III. 778 
given in Phil. Tr., which is affected by the same general cause of error, requires 
a correction of -j-9' in P.D. 

3180 h. 1405=111. 44. This is .the companion of -M. 60, and is placed by M. D'Arrest 

in the first class, even with the 4^-inch Leipzig refractor. Perhaps the very 

superior light of M. 60 may have led both H. and h. to under-estimate that of 

its, anyhow, much fainter companion. 

3189 Yh. 1414, 1415=1. 176, 177. These two, according to Lord Rosse, are= connected 
3J90J by faint nebulosity. 
3206 III. 778. See note on 3174. 
3214 h. 1426=11. 181. Auwers points out a discordance of 19' in P.D. between my 

observation and that of II. 181. This is owing mainly, however, to. a-, misprint 

in. PhiL Tirana. (See List of Errata.) 

...... 



32 SIR J. F. W. HERSCHEL'S CATALOGUE 



No. 

32161 

\TL. 795, 796. See note on 3174. 



32161 

3224J 1 



3228 I. 8=111. 6. The later of these nebulae is expressly stated in the register (H. 38) 
to be of the 1st class, though set down (it does not appear why) in the 3rd. 

3254 h. 1452=1. 41. The case of this nebula is a very odd one. H. has two obser- 
vations of it. One on April 5, 1784, where it is described as a " L; B ; r neb ; 
sbM; ill Fig; Class I." Another on March 3, 1789, calls it "pB; cL; iFig; 
er. Many of the st. visible." So that it may be called a cluster. Both the 
places of H. and that of h. agree so well, that the object in all must have been 
the same. Here seems evidence of change. 

3256 h. 1453=11. 73. Contradictory descriptions, and possibly two nebulae differing 
1 in R.A. 

3311 h. 1480=1. 141. Query if not changed, h.'s observations are positive as to the 
clearness of the sky. But query as to the state of the speculum. 

3319 h. 1485=11. 384. Not seen by Lord Rosse in two observations (hazy). 



3337) 

3338 

3358 

3420 

3483 



h. 1497=1. 68; II. 299; h. 1511=1. 69; h. 1536=11. 301; h. 1574=111. 382. 
Auwers finds 5' A.P.D. between H. I. 68 and h. 1497. His place is from P.T. 
53 Virginis n. 1 4', whereas C.H. in her reductions uses n. 1 11', and my 
observations of this and the other nebulae in this list justify the departure. I 
subjoin her note on this nebula (in zone 103 C.H.): 



" I. 68, I. 69, III. 282 are each 7' more north than they are given in the 
" printed Catalogue. The disagreement is the result of the recalculation, and 
" is probably owing to my attempting more accuracy in valuing the ' numbers 
" ' to a degree,' &c. &c." (i. e. in the index reductions of the Polar distance 
readings which were parts of an arbitrary scale). And in the next zone (104 
C.H.) occurs, 

" II. 299 and II. 301 require the same memorandum." In point of fact, com- 
paring my own observations with those reduced by M. Auwers, the differences, 
as stated by him, run thus : 

1.68 . . . A.P.D. H-h=+5' 

I. 69 -f 7' 

III. 282 +7' 

II. 299 

II. 301 +6' 

so that in each case, where I have observed the object, the alteration is justified. 
This is only one out of the innumerable instances of painstaking and laborious 
scrutiny bestowed by her upon these reductions which have occurred to me in 
the collation of her zone catalogue with the original observations and with my 
own results. 

3356 h. 1509=1. 143. Auwers places this nebula 1 13' too much to the south in con- 
sequence of an erratum in P.T. (see List of Errata). 



OF NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS OF STAES. 33 

No. 

3358 See note on 3337. 
3363 V. 3. Auwers makes the R.A. of this neb. for 1830 13 h 2 m 31', which is 10 m too 

great. The P.T., which in this instance is correct, makes it follow 75 Leonis 

l h 44 m . 
3393 h. 1527. This is not impossibly III. 937, but as both E.A.'s and P.D.'s differ very 

much, they may be different, and arc therefore separately stated. 
3415 h. 1535. Not seen by Lord Rosse in one observation; clouds passing h. has two 

observations, both agreeing well. 

3420 See note on No. 3337. 

3421 II. 185. Auwers, misled by an error in P.T. (see List of Errata), makes the R.A. 

of this neb. too small by 10. 

342G Auw. N. 31. Not visible in the Konigsberg Heliometer. 
3483 See note on No. 3337. 
350G II. 22. T.D. extremely doubtful. 

3512 II. 82G. Place re-reduced by the star used by H. and A.S.C. 
3527 h. 159711. 314. Auwers makes A.R.A. II. h. = + 107 s , and remarks that 

there is perhaps some error in P.T. This is the case (see List of Errata), and 

with the correction there indicated the agreement is satisfactory. 
3550 D'Arr. 94. D'Arrcst says " not found again, Feb. 19, 1863. Sky perfectly clear. 

Perhaps a comet." 
3588 h. 1633=111. 926. II. says it is sp a considerable star. h. has " a *9m with a 

very dilute nebulous atmosphere." Has the star or the nebula moved I 
3650 III. 946. Auwers makes the declination +89 17', a misprint for -f 80 9 17'. 
3662 h. 1674=1. 255. Evidently ill seen by h. The description of II. preferred. 
36G4-)h. 1676, 1679=111. 422, 423. Auwers makes the P.D. 12' too great by reason 
36G8J of an erratum in P.T. (see List of Errata). 
3728 h. 1720=111. 666. Auwers finding A.R.A. II. h. = +52", supposes a mistake of 

l m . Examined sweep 146 (h.), and found all clearly written and right reduced. 
3750|h. 1734, 1735=11. 309, 310. H. says the second is the larger, h. the smaller of 
3751) the two. 
3760] 
3762 



3763 
3764 
3766 
3767 
3770 
3771 



h. 1744=M. 101, and its attendants in more or less intimate nebulous connexion. 
Of those in Lord Rosse's woodcut, P.T. 1861, p. 729, N, the principal nucleus, 
is No. 3770=h. 1774; n,=No. 3774=1744, i; n, No. 3773=1744, h. The 
others are not lettered, and are made out from the joint evidence of this dia- 
gram and the measures of position and distance of the stars compared with the 
copper plate, fig. 35. 1744, a is not improbably =111. 787. 



3773 
3774. 

MDCCCLXIV. 



84 81H J. P. W. HEBSCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

3820 h. 1703=111. 804=111. 835. The identity of these nebula; rests on a memoran- 
dum in MS. in my copy of Ph. Tr., supported by the reductions of all the obs. 
by C.H. in 3 sweeps, each with two determining stars. Auwers makes them 
differ by 14' in P.D. 

3836 III. 551. Place concluded from h. 1772=111. 552 from H.'s description, viz. 
that it precedes that nebula by 3' or 4' (3' 30") =14' of time. 

3844 h. 1777=111. 347. Auwers makes A.P.D. = 59', but observes that there must 
be some misprint. Examining all, I find that such is the case (see List of Errata), 
which recognized, shows that 1 has been mistaken, and the identity is therefore 
proved. 

3846 h. 1779=1. 144. Auwers makes the P.D. (1830)=86 30', and H. h. = l 14'. 
The cause of the discordance is a misprint in P.T. (see List of Errata), in conse- 
quence of which the nebula is 1 13' north of its printed place. 



3858 
3859 
3860 



h. 1789, 1788, 1791=111. 416, 417. Lord Kosse says that of these three only 
two were found. The obs. in sw. 28 re-examined 1789 and 1791 were both 



observed. Moreover, in sw. 337, III. 417=h. 1791 and h. 1788 were both 
observed, and 1791 is expressly stated to have been the sf of two seen in moon- 
light. Now the np of these could not be h. 1789, which is eF and not north, 
but south preceding, whereas h. 1788 by its place in sw. 338 is np. All three, 
therefore, really existed at the date of these observations. It was h. 1789 (eF) 
which escaped Lord Rosse's notice, though looked for with greater instrumental 
power. Perhaps it may have changed. 

3863 III. 135. Auwers's P.D. for 1830 is 63 0'. C.H. reduced to 1830 gives 62 50' 20". 
Auwers has used (P.T.) 1 5' n. of d, 12 Bootis ; C.H. 1 16' n. of the same *. 
C.H. is to be preferred on every account to P.T. Her A.P.D.'s are grounded 
on a most complete and searching re-examination and recomputation (according 
to the then existing star catalogues) of all the data (in the earlier sweeps most 
obscure -foliis sibyllinis olscuriora) for determining the degrees and minutes of 
P.D. from the index numbers. In almost every case I find her corrections (or 
rather interpretations) to be justified ; and I have no doubt that in this parti- 
cular instance such will prove the case, though here I confess myself, after con- 
sulting the original sweep, unable to perceive the reason for the deviation. 

3888 III. 319. Auwers, following P.T., which places the nebula 2 26' north of /3 Ursa? 
min., makes the P.D. 1830 =12 46', and so it stands in the Register sheet 
(H. 864). But it should be 2 26' south. So C.H. has used it, and so it proves 
to be on reference to the original sweep, sw. 391 (H.), giving for the P.D. 
17 36' 12". 

3920 h. 1832=11. 695. Not seen by Lord Rosse in one observation. See note on 
No. 132. 

3922 h. 3573= A. 342. In Auwers's list of Lacaille's nebulae, he sets down for the 



OF NEBULA AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 35 

No. 

declination of this 55 58'-8. For 58'-8 read 48'-8, if it be the same object, 
but of that some doubt remains. 

3967 VI. 8. Auwers, using % Virginis, the determining star in P.T., places this cluster 
in B.A. 14 h 53 m 37 s (1830), 99 55' P.D. This, however, is declared by a sub- 
sequent MS. note to be a mistake for Mayer's 577 zod. star, whence the place 
in this Catalogue is accordingly derived. But this star, too, must have been 
mistaken, and on consulting the original sweep (sw. 209, H.) I find no star in 
the sweep whose identity can be satisfactorily ascertained. All that can be 
certainly affirmed is that, within a degree one way or the other in P.D., and 
from 5 to 10 minutes of time in R.A. of the place set down, there exists a fine 
cluster of the 6th class which should be looked for. Fortunately it is the only 
nebula observed in the sweep, a very short one. 

3977 h. 1866 = 1. 184. Some suspicion of variability, inasmuch as one description calls 
it R, another E, and another mE, besides other indications in respect of bright- 
ness. 

3998 III. 373. C.H., by three distinct observations in three different sweeps (400, 

730, 917, H.) from the same determining star 11 libra (s. 13', s. 14', 
and s. 15'), deduces a P.D., which reduced to 1830=91 49' 39". Auwers, 
using the same star, s. 12' as per P.T., places it in P.D. 91 17', which, how- 
ever, is probably a misprint for 91 47'. Two of H.'s observations place the 
small star south, and one north of the nebula. 

3999 h. 1881=11. 576. The binuclear character verified by R, who says that it is a 

close double nebula. 
4016 h. 1892=111. 131. Query if not variable in brightness. H. in two observations 

calls it F and cB; h., in two others, vF and eF. 

4025|II. 756=h. 1898 ?. In the two observations by H. of II. 766 it is described as 
4029J cF; pL; iF; r; 

pB; s; E; 

and no mention is made of a double star near it, so that though the places agree 

within the possible limits of discordance, they are most probably two distinct 

nebulae. 

4043) 1901, a. Two of six seen by Lord Rosse. The others must have been h. 1901, 
4044J h. 1902, II. 541 and III. 511. 

4048)111. 886, 887. Auwers has made an error of 12' in the declination, or +12' in 
4049J the P.D. of this double nebula as determined from P.T. (20' n. of 7 Serpentis). 

The P.D. here set down is that correctly reduced, C.H. having on her part 

committed an error of +2' in P.D. 
4051 h. 1905=11. 751. In Auwers's declination, for +20 44' read +20 14', an 

evident misprint. 
4065 IL 818. Owing to an erroneous designation of the <tetermining star in P.T. (see 

F2 



36 SIE J. F. W. HEKSCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 



4124) 

4127 

4128 

4131 

4133 



List of Errata), Auwers has given the place of this nebula (1830) as R.A. 
14 h 41 m 3 8 ; Decl. +60 5'. 

h. 1934, &c. In Lord Rosse's diagram of the group h. 1934, A, the most con- 
spicuous, would naturally be selected as identical with that nebula, but in that 
case II. 766 would not be included in the group. On the other hand, if B be 
taken for h. 1934, the identifications will stand as follows: A=No. 4131 



=11. 766; B=No. 4128=h. 1934; C=No. 4127 = 1934, I; D=No. 4124 
=1934, a. This, however, supposes an error of 45 s of R.A. in H.'s place of 

II. 766, which is not probable, while on the other hand it is difficult to account 
otherwise for its not having been noticed at all. All things considered, I have 
thought it best to enter A as a new nebula, No. 4133=1934, c, leaving 766 
untouched. 

4167 h. 1948=111. 74. Not seen by Lord Rosse, once looked for (see note on No. 132). 

4173 h. 3624=M. 80. This is Pogson's globular cluster, with a variable star in the 
centre, for whose most singular history see the Monthly Notices of the R. Ast. 
Soc. xxi. pp. 32, 33, by Mr. Pogson. Mr. P. in that statement says that Sir J. 
Herschel (among others mentioned) had described it as either " cometary " or 
" nebulous." This is incorrect. In both my observations of this object it 
stands described as a globular cluster, all completely resolved into stars. (See 
C.G.H. h. 3624.) 

4234 h. 1970 = 2. 5. D'Arrest calls this planetary nebula blue. The place used is a 
mean of his observations, that of h. (Catal. of 1833) being only Struve's roughly 
brought up. M. D'Arrest makes the diameter =14"'6. 

4247 III. 727. The comparison of the place here set down with that of Auwers is 
curious for the great number of perfectly accidental errors which have heaped 
themselves together. The place (C.H.) is rightly reduced by her from a Her- 
culis, f 16 m 11 s ; n 0' 14", which is that given in P.T., and which, reduced to 1830, 
gives for the R.A. 16 h 44 m 46 S '8 and for the P.D. 47 58' 16", differing +8 8 '8 
and +11" from the exact result. In M. Auwers's catalogue it is entered thus: 

III. 127; R.A. 16 U 14 m 47 s ; Decl. +43 1' (corresponding to P.D. 46 59'). 
That is to say, there is a misprint in each of the three particulars. This is not 
to be taken as a specimen of M. Auwers's work, which is an admirable example 
of painstaking devotion, and far beyond any eulogy in my power to offer. But 
it is a striking instance of the way in which, in the great run of chances, 
unlucky coincidences will happen. 

4259 h. 1974. Doubtful whether a nebula or a very faint double or triple star. 
4294 M. 92 (= also Lalande No. 31544). Not observed by h., but 8 times by H. 

Place from Wollaston's catalogue, which is almost identical with Auwers 

(A.R.A.=rO s -l, A.P.D. = 0' 3"). 
4302 h. 1981 =h. 3686=IV. 11. The annular form only perceived in the southern 



OF NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS OF STAES. 37 

No. 

observations. Both H. and h., in their northern observations, describe it as of 
equable light throughout. It appears from Lord Rosse's observations that the 
annular form is much more common among these " planetary " nebulae than H. 
or h. had any idea of. 

4364 h. 3723=11. 200. On a ground astonishingly rich. 

4368 V. 1 3. P.D. by Auwers =113 36' (1830), owing to an error in P.T. (see List of 
Errata). 

4372 h. 3726 = A. 473. There is a singular statement respecting this cluster by Cac- 
ciatore in No. 113 of the Astronomische Nachrichten. He observed it as a 
nebula, he says, on the 19th of March, 1820 (of course, therefore, Dunlop has 
the priority in point of date). But where he saw it Lacaille, he says, noted 
his star 1483 (Coelum Australe). Also, Piazzi in 1794 and 1801 in the same 
place saw only a star. Cacciatore in 1809 and 1810 observed the same star, 
but saw no nebula, only a star 9m following it (P. xvii. 341, 346). In looking 
for the comet of 1826, however, " fui colpito," he says, " da questa bella nebu- 
losa." Unfortunately for this curious history, the place of Piazzi's star referred 
to (and which he identifies with 1483 C.A.) differs by no less than 18' in P.D. 
from that of the nebula in question, which was therefore out of the field of 
view, both of his own and of Piazzi's telescope, when observing the star. 

4390 h. 2000. 2. 6. Omitted by Auwers from his catalogue of new nebulas, which con- 
tains many far less remarkable. Diameter, according to D'Arrest, = 7"'05. 
Bessel's place =h.+0 s '8, -0' 22". 

4397 h. 2004 = M. 24. H.'s two observations hardly consist with this description, and 
their deviation in R.A. of nearly 4 m from Messier's place makes it very doubt- 
ful whether he really saw this object. 

4411 M. 69. Piazzi, in a note on xviii. 122 of his catalogue, says that both M. 69 and 
M. 70 are 1 more to the south. But he is wrong. 

4415 Auwers, N. 40. This is the nebula discovered by Tut tie on Sept. 1, 1859, and it 
would appear to be variable, for M. D'Arrest says (in a letter of May 8, 1863), 
" La nebuleuse de M. Tuttle (Astron. Nachr. No. 1337. p. 272) etait, le 24 Sept. 
1862, si brillante ct si remarquable dans le chercheur (grandis et prceclara, oualis, 
2' lonffa, 80" lata), que je suis persuade qu'elle n'a pas etc telle du temps de 
Messier ct de votre pere, et de vos propres observations. Voici la position que 
j'ai obtenue. 1861-0 R.A. 275 55'-6, N.P.D. = 15 30'-1." The place given in 
the present Catalogue is that of M. Auwers, and differs somewhat, though not 
considerably, from this determination. 

4428 M. 70. See the note on No. 4411. 

4462 III. 742. This agrees too well with M. D'Arrest's place of his No. 113 not to 
be the same. His description is F; S; R; *10p 12'-6, s 2' 30". 

4473 Auwers, N. 44. This is the nebula discovered by Mr. Hind on March 30, 1845. 



38 8IE J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

It was observed in May 1852 as a nebula of the first class ; subsequently as 
" pretty faint and diluted." M. Auwers found it " surprisingly faint," and of 
the 2nd class at the highest. 

4487 h. 2037=111. 743. This was seen as a planetary nebula in the twilight by 
M. D' Arrest with the 4^-inch refractor, and can therefore hardly be ranked so 
low as Class III. 

4536 h. 2062=111. 144. Not seen by Lord Rosse; once looked for. (See note on 
No. 132, &c.) 

4570 h. 2073. Not seen by Lord Rosse; twice looked for. h. has three observations 
agreeing well. The object is an equivocal one. 

45851 h. 2081=:!. 103. According to an observation of Olbers, cited by Auwers, this 

4586J is identical with No. 4585 = 1. 103, the place of the latter nebula, as assigned 
by H., being 20' wrong in P.O. This had escaped my notice until the nebula 
in this Catalogue had been finally numbered and much other work accumulated 
on them ; and it was considered better to let No. 4585 stand, though erroneous, 
than to hazard confusion by striking it out and altering all the subsequent num- 
bering. 

4618 h. 2093. In conformity with Mr. Mason's remarks on my observations of this 
nebula, and with his elaborate and excellent monograph of the great nebulous 
system of which it forms a part, I have diminished the P.D. in my Catalogue of 
1833 by 1. It is evident that the index reading must have been mistaken, 1 
for 0. Sweep 8 examined ; the writing is clear and the reduction correct, but 
the conclusion from Mr. Mason's observations is irresistible. 

4628 h. 2098=IV. 1. According to Lassell this is annular, an elliptic ring with a star 
in the centre. 

4654 h. 2113. Not seen by Lord Rosse; twice looked for. Examined sw. 86 (h.), in 
which it was observed. All found apparently correct, the observation clearly 
written and right reduced: and it is added, " the double star" (h. 934 in my 
" 3rd series of observations, &c. &c.," Mem. Ast. Soc. vol. iii.) " is a good guide." 
A diagram accompanying the observations, by indicating lines points out the 
relative situation of the double star and nebula. 

4710 h. 2133. Not seen by Lord Rosse in four observations. 

4714 h. 3897. Not found by Mr. LasseU within 30' all round the place. 

4723 h. 2137=111. 920. Not seen by Lord Rosse in one observation. 

4756 h. 2148. Not seen by Lord Rosse in three observations. In one a cloud passing. 

4775 h. 2156=111.932. H. says, "just sf a S* to. which it seems almost to be attached, 
but is free from it." h. says, " has a * 13m at a distance from the edge = 1 dia- 
meter by diagram." Sw. 274 (h.). This sweep re-examined. The diagram makes 
the star north of the nebula. The description says, "Diagram certainly right." 

4816 2172, a. In this group Lord Rosse has given only measures of relative position, 



OF NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 39 

No. 

and none of distance ; so that it is impossible to assign specific places to the 
individuals of which it consists. He speaks of five near to h. 2172. The dia- 
gram exhibits only four. One may possibly be III. 166. 

4848 2184, a. In Lord Rosse's diagram of the group to which this belongs, a is h. 2183 
= No. 4845; /3 = D'Arr. 117 = No. 4844; y = h. 2184 = 111. 217=No. 4846; 
S=D'Arr. 118=No. 4847. That marked as 2184, a is not lettered in the dia- 
gram, and is " nova." 

4892 h. 2205=1. 55. Placed in the second class only by M. D' Arrest with the 4|-inch 
Leipzig retractor. In this Catalogue it is set down as only " pretty Bright," 
from a mean of seven observations. 

4894 h. 3971 =h. 3972. These are assuredly identical; but the minute of R.A. being 
doubtful, that of the earlier 3971 is preferred. The mean of the seconds and 
the Polar distances is taken, blending the two, and also the descriptions. 

4922 h. 2223=111. 222. Three times called by h. "pretty Bright," and three times 
by h. and H., eF; vF; eF. Is this a case of variability 1 

4933 h. 2228=h. 3982=1. 104. Placed in the second class by M. D' Arrest. With 
this the present Catalogue agrees ; making it " pretty Faint " by a mean of three 
observations. 

4941 D'Arr. Not included by M. D'Arrest in his final list ; but there are four obser- 
vations of it recorded in his " Resultate," all agreeing well. 

4964 h. 2241 =IV. 18. According to Mr. Lassell this superb "planetary nebula" is 
bi-annular, consisting of a nucleus and two oval rings. 

4966 h. 2242=111. 226. Called by h. in four observations, pB; pB; pB; pB, and in 
two by H. eF ; vF. 

4980 h. 2250=111. 213. Not seen by Lord Rosse in 4 observations. In my observa- 
tions of sweep 103, a very short sweep, using the quadrant instead of the index 
arc, and with no good zero star, both R.A. and P.D. may be a good deal 
wrong. My place, however, agrees pretty well with that of H. (A. R.A. = 5 s , 
A. P.D. =4'), and the existence of a nebula as described, hereabouts, is certain, 
but it should be looked for within somewhat wider limits. 

4998 h. 2261=1. 110. H. has two observations in which this nebula is called cB; 
h. has one where it is called eF ; adding " sky quite clear." 

50031 h. 2263=11. 208. These can hardly be the same. The R.A.'s differ by nearly 

6004J 2 and the P.D.'s by 6'. The descriptions also disagree. 255, the position of 
the star 14m in h. 2263, is not np but sp, and the estimates of their magnitudes 
differ materially. 

5015 h. 2271 = 111. 854. A very problematic object, and in which there is great dif- 
ficulty in making out its nature. Stars and nebula oddly mixed. 

5020]h. 2274=11. 230; 2274, a; h. 2275=11. 231. In Lord Rosses diagram of this 

5021 1 group, =h, 2274; 0=h. 2275; y=nova=2274, a. h. sweep 91 makes II. 

5022J 230 the np of two, and II. 231 " to have II. 230, 45 sp." This is contradicted 



40 SIE J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 

No. 

by the diagram. There is some confusion among the observations as to whether 
the two nebula; II. 230, 231 really lie np or sp from each other, and it might 
be suspected that the P.D.'s had been read crossways, the R.A.'s being rightly 
set down ; but Lord Rosse's diagram and measures decide the point in favour 
of the relative situation being here correctly given. 

5051 h. 2302. Not seen by Lord Rosse in two observations. Examined the original 
observation, all clear and apparently correct. The nebula certainly exists in or 
very near the place here set down. 

5061 2849, a. A nebula mentioned by M. D' Arrest, but not included in his MS. list of 
well-determined nebula;. Should, however, be looked for. 

References to Figures of Nebulas in various works. 

In the following list of figured nebulae, the first column contains the current number 
of the nebula or cluster in the present Catalogue ; the second the number attached to 
it in my Catalogues in P.T. 1833 and C.G.II. ; or if not found in either of these, the 
class and number in my Father's Catalogues or other sufficient designation. The third 
contains an abbreviated reference to the publication in which the figure will be found, 
viz. 

P.T. 33. The volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society for 

A.D. 1833. 

P.T. 44. Ditto, Ditto, for 1844^) 
P.T. 50. Ditto, Ditto, for 1850lLord Rosse's papers. 
P.T. 61. Ditto, Ditto, for 1861J 

C.G.IL Results of astronomical observations at the Cape of Good Hope by J.F.W.H. 
R. di. The woodcut diagrams in Lord Rosse's paper, Philosophical Transactions, 
1861 ; such only being referred to as express some distinct peculiarity not 
elsewhere figured. 

B.A.A. Professor Bond's Memoirs in vol. iii. N.S. of the Transactions of the Ame- 
rican Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

M.A.A. Mr. Mason's Memoirs in vol. vii. of the Transactions of the American Aca- 
demy. 
D'Arr. M. D'Arrest's Inaugural dissertation and description of the Copenhagen 

Equatoreal, 1861. 

Lam. Dr. Lament's " Oeffentliche Vorlesung iibcr die Nebelflccken." Mxinchen 1837. 
Lass. Mr. Lassell's Memoirs in vol. xxiii. of the Transactions of the Royal Astrono- 
mical Society. 

Column 4 contains the number of the Plate in the volume referred to where the figure 
will be found, and column 5 the number of the figure in that Plate. 

The figures annexed to Mr. Dunlop's catalogue are not included, as for the main part 
they offer no resemblance to the objects figured (when identifiable), and would serve only 



OF NEBULJE ASTD CLUSTEES OF STAES. 



41 



to mislead. The same remark applies to most of the older figures of nebulae scattered 
through the volumes of the Histoire de 1'Academie Francaise, and other collections. 
Of the older figures of the nebula in Orion, however, for curiosity's sake, a list is sub- 
joined. The figures accompanying my Father's memoir in Philosophical Transactions, 
1811, are also omitted. They do not profess to be resemblances, and are given rather 
as types of certain classes of objects into which he there considers the nebula3 to be dis- 
tributable. At least they are made from very rude diagrams. 

References to published figures of Nebulce. 



No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 


Work 
cited. 


No. of 
plate. 


No. of 
fig- 




No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 


Work 
cited. 


No. of 
plate. 


No. of 
% 
















1157 


357 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


81 




27 


2315 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


8 








P.T. 44 


xix. 


81 




31 


15 


P.T. 61 


XXV. 


1 








B. di. 








52 


2:122 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


1 








D'Arr. 


ii. 


4 




67 


2327 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


19 








Lass. 


ii. 


1 




105 


44 


B.A.A. 


opp. p. 86 






1163 


2864 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


7 




106 


45 


B.A.A. 


Ditto. 






1164 


2865 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


7 




116 


50 


B.A.A. 


Ditto. 






1165 


2866 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


20 




117 


51 


B.A.A. 


Ditto. 






1168 


2867 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


20 




138 


61 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


52 




1171 


A. 136 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


20 




169 


2359 


C.G.H. 


V. 


10 




1171 


2868 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


20 




187 


2370 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


6 




1174 


2872 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


7 




298 


112 


P.T. 33 


V. 


38 




1175 


2869 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


20 




303 


116 


R. di. 








1176 


2875 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


7 




352 


131 


P.T. 50 


xxxvi. 


5 




1177 


2876 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


7 








P.T. 61 


xxvi. 


10 




1179 


360 


C.G.H. 


viii. 


I 




372 


142 


B. di. 












B.A.A. 


opp. p. 96 






400 


151 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


58 








Lass. 


i. 


1 




412 


156 


P.T. 61 


XXV. 


2 








* 


see note 






527 


218 


P.T. 33 


ii. 


28 




1180 


V. 30 


C.G.H. 


ii. 


3 








B. di. 








1183 


361 


C.G.H. 


ii. 


3 




544 


223 


D'Arr. 


ii. 


7 








P.T. 50 


xxxviii. 


6 




560 


232 


P.T. 61 


XXV. 


3 








Lass. 


ii. 


3 




567 


2487 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


14 




1185 


M. 43 


C.G.H. 


viii. 


1 




572 


241 


P.T. 61 


XXV. 


4 








B.A.A. 


opp. p. 96 






575 


242 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


56 








Lass. 


i. 


1 








P.T. 61 


XXV. 


5 








* 


see note 






600 


262 


P.T. 61 


XXV. 


6 




1225 


365 


D'Arr. 


ii. 


2 




70S 


2534 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


7 








Lass. 


ii. 


2 




731 


2552 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


1 




1226 


iv. 24 


D'Arr. 


ii. 


10 




810 


311 


P.T. 33 


ii. 


31 




1233 


2910 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


5 








P.T. 61 


XXV. 


17 




1235 


2913 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


5 




822 


2620 


C.G.H. 


V. 


11 




1238 


2916 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


5 




823 


2621 


C.G.H. 


V. 


11 




1243 


2918 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


5 




826 


2618 


D'Arr. 


ii. 


9 




1248 


2923 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


9 








I.uss. 


ii. 


4 




1249 


2925 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


9 




853 


315 


P.T. 61 


XXV. 


8 




1258 


2935 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


9 




888 327 


P.T. 61 


XXV. 


9 




1259 


2933 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


9 




979 2709 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


3 




1260 


2936 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


9 




980 


2710 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


3 




1265 


2938 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


9 




981 


2711 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


3 




1266 


2939 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


9 




987 


2716 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


3 




1267 


368 


P.T. 33 


iv. 


36 




1057 


2775 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


1 








B. di. 








1082 


2802 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


6 




1269 


2941 


C.G.H. 


ii. 


4 




1084 


2803 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


6 




1276 


2948 


C.G.H. 


iii 


4 




1085 


istil 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


6 




1277 


2949 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


4 




1080 


2805 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


6 




1278 


2950 


C'.C.II. 


iii. 


4 




1089 


2808 


C.GH. 


iii. 


6 




1279 


2951 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


4 




1090 


2810 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


6 




1281 


2952 


(Mi. 11. 


iii. 


4 




1135 


2840 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


2 




1282 


2953 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


4 




1137 


355 


P.T. 33 


V. 


49 




1283 


2954 


e.c.H. 


iii. 


4 




1140 


2842 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


2 




1419 


390 


B. di. 








1141 


2843 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


2 




1425 


393 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


11 




1142 


2844 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


2 




1437 


399 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


64 




1143 


2845 


C.G.H. 


iii. 


2 








P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


10 




1156 


2859 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


7 








Lass. 


ii. 


8 





MDCCCLXIV. 



42 



SIR J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 



TABLE (continued). 



No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 


Work 
cited. 


No. of 
plate. 


No. of 
fig- 




No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 


Work 
cited. 


No. of 
plate. 


No. of 
fig- 




1467 


415 


P.T. 33 


yiii. 


91 




2841 


1175 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


55 




1477 


421 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


12 




2870 


1196 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


21 




1511 


3075 


C.G.H. 


IT. 


4 




2878 


1202 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


69 




1519 


444 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


72 




2884 


1196, a 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


21 








P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


6 




2910 


1225 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


57 




1520 
1521 


} 445 


Lass. 


ii. 


9 




2950 
2958 


1245 
1252 


P.T. 61 
P.T. 33 


xxvii. 
vii. 


22 

68 




1532 


450 


P.T. 50 


xxxviii. 


15 




2962 


1252 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


68 








Lass. 


ii. 


6 




2972 


1258 


R. di. 








1565 


f 464-1 
1 3093 / 


P.T. 50 


xxxviii. 


12 




3041 
3042 


1306 
1308 


P.T. 61 
P.T. 61 


xxvii. 

xxvii. 


23 
23 








Lass. 


ii. 


5 




3085 


1337 


P.T. 33 


iv. 


37 




1567 


3095 


Lass. 


ii. 


7 








P.T. 61 


xxvih. 


24 




1677 


3131 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


12 




3101 


1352 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


83 




1721 


536 


P.T. 33 


Vi. 


61 




3)06 


1357 


P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


9 




1728 


537 


Lam. 
P.T. 33 


i. 

VI. 


8 
65 




3108 


f 1358 
1 1363 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


78 




1745 
1801 


3145 

3154 


C.G.H. 
C.G.H. 


V. 
T. 


12 

8 




3109 


f 1359 
{ 1365 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


78 




1861 
1863 


1 604 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


70 




3113 
3132 


1362 
1376 


P.T. 33 
P.T. 33 


vi. 
vi. 


66 
50 




1911 


639 


P.T. 50 
P.T. 61 


xxx vi. 
xxvii. 


3 
13 




3151 
3152 


1385 


P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


25 




2003 


3221 


C.G.H. 


T. 


9 




3165 


1397 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


76 




2017 


3228 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


9 








P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


9 








Lass. 


ii. 


10 




3180 


1405 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


74 




2058 


692 


P.T. 61 


xxv ii. 


14 




3182 


1408 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


74 




2063 


3241 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


2 




3189 


1414 "1 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


75 




2067 


3239 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


3 




3190 


1415 f 


P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


26 




2102 


3248 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


5 




3240 


1441 


P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


27 








Lass, 


ii. 


11 




324!) 


1451 


R. di. 








2158 


731 


P.T. 33 


V. 


40 




3258 


1456 


P.T. 33 


V. 


41 




2107 


3295 


C.G.H. 


ix. 


1 


Argus. 


3275 


3435 


C.G.H. 


i. 


2 




2216 


765 


P.T. 61 


xxrii. 


15 




3278 


1466 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


84 




2217 


766 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


15 




3321 


1486 


P.T. 33 


ii. 


27 




2333 


3324 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


10 




3340 


149!) 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


62 




2336 


3325 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


10 




3356 


1509 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


67 




2337 


3326 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


10 




3511 


1589 


P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


28 




2338 


3327 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


10 




3525 


3501 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


2 




2340 


3329 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


10 




3531 


3504 


C.G.H. 


V. 


7 




2342 


3330 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


10 




3570 


3514 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


1 




2343 


838 


P.T. 33 


ii. 


32 




3572 


1622 


P.T. 33 


ii. 


25 








P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


11 








P.T. 50 


XXXV. 


1 




2373 


854 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


53 








K. di. 












P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


7 




3606 


3523 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


5 








Lam. 


i. 


6 




3614 


1649 


P.T. 33 


V. 


39 




2377 


f 857-1 
1 875 / 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


54 




3615 
3651 


1650 
3541 


P.T. 61 
C.G.H. 


xxviii. 
vi. 


29 
15 








T.T. 61 


xxvi. 


16 




3706 


3548 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


10 




2378 


859 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


51 




3717 


1713 


P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


30 




2379 


858 


R. di. 








3750 


1734 


R di. 








2445 


910 


E. di. 








3766 


III. 787 


P.T. 61 


xxix. 


35 




2486 


f 934-1 
1 3355 f 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


79 




3770 
3778 


1744 
in. 788 


P.T. 61 
P.T. 61 


xxix. 
xxix. 


35 
35 




2488 
2559 


f 936] 
1 3356 / 
982 


P.T. 33 
B. di. 


vii. 


79 




3779 
4051 \ 
4052 / 


III. 789 
1905 


P.T. 61 
P.T. 33 


xxix. 
vii. 


35 

77 




2597 


1002 


R. di. 












P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


31 




2606 


1011 


P.T. 61 


xxvi. 


17 




4058 


1909 


P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


8 




2652 


1041 


P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


7 




4066 


3594 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


8 




2670 


1052 


P.T. 61 


xxvi. 


16 




4083 


1916 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


87 




2671 


1053 


P.T. 61 


xxvi. 


16 




4087 


1917 


R. di. 








2680 


1061 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


19 




4118 


1929 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


89 




2733 


1092 


B. di. 








4125 


3610 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


7 




2756 


1111 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


20 




4160 


19J6 


P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


32 




2760 


1113 


P.T. 61 


xxvii. 


20 




4224 


3641 


C.G.H. 


V. 


4 




2804 


1146 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


71 




4229 


3644 


C.G.H. 


V. 


6 




2806 


1148 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


59 




4230 


1968 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


86 




2807 


1149 


P.T. 50 


xxxvii. 


8 








P.T. 61 


xxviii. 


33 




2838 


1173 


P.T. 50 


XXXV. 


2 




4234 


1970 


Lam. 


i. 


1 





OF NEBULAE AND CLUSTERS OF STARS. 



43 



TABLE (continued). 



No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. Ac. 


Work 
cited. 


No. of 
plate. 


No. of 
fig- 




No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 


Work 
cited. 


No. of 
plate. 


No. of 
fig- 




4261 


3I!61 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


13 




4572 


2075 


P.T. 33 


V. 


47 




4284 


3675 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


6 








P.T. 61 


\\viii. 


34 




4290 


3680 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


3 








Lam. 


i. 


5 






3680, 2 


C.G.H. 


V. 


3 


MilkyWay. 


4594 


2084 


P.T. 61 


m. 


36 




4302 


I 1891 1 
1 3686 / 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


4 




4600 
4616 


2088 
2092 


P.T. 33 
P.T. 33 


iii. 
iii. 


33 
34 




4305 


3688 


C.G.H. 


vi. 


18 








M.A.A. 


vii. 


1 






3702, 2 


C.G.H. 


T. 


1 


MilkyWay. 


4618 


2093 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


82 




4335 


3707 


C.G.H. 


V. 


5 








M.A.A. 


vii. 


1 




4342 


3713,2 


C.G.H. 


V. 


2 




4627 


2099 


P.T. 61 


XXX. 


37 




4343 


1989 


P.T. 33 


V. 


43 




4628 


2098 


P.T. 33 


V. 


44 




4355 


/ 19911 
13718/ 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


80 








P.T. 50 
D'Arr. 


xxxviii. 
ii. 


14 
1 








C.G.H. 


ii. 


2 








Lam. 


i. 


4 








M.A.A. 


iv. 


1 




4678 


2125 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


88 




4361 


3722 


C.G.H. 


i. 


1 








P.T. 44 


xviii. 


88 




4375 
4395 


3727 

2002 


C.G.H. 
P.T. 33 


vi. 
ii. 


16 
30 




4687 


/ 21281 
1 3878 / 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


90 




4403 


2008 


P.T. 33 


iv. 


35 




4729 


3908 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


11 








C.G.H. 


ii. 


1 




4730 


3909 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


11 








Lam. 


i. 


10 




4731 


3910 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


11 








M.A.A. 


vi. 


1 




4733 


3911 


C.G.H. 


iv. 


11 




4437 


2019 


Lam. 


j. 


9 




4731 


2139 


P.T. 61 


XXX. 


38 




4447 


2023 


P.T. 33 


ii. 


29 




4815 


2172 


P.T. 61 


XXX. 


39 








P.T. 44 


xix. 


29 


t 


4876 


2197 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


73 








D'Arr. 


ii. 


5 




4877 


2198 


P.T. 33 


vii. 


73 




4487 


2037 


Lam. 


i. 


7 




4892 


2205 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


63 




4510 


2047 


P.T. 33 


V. 


46 








P.T. 50 


xxrvi. 


4 








D'Arr. 


ii. 


3 








D'Arr. 


ii. 


6 








Lam. 


,i. 


2 




4950 


2236 


P.T. 33 


vi. 


60 




4514 


2050 


P.T. 33 


V. 


43 




4964 


2241 


P.T. 33 


V. 


45 




4532 


2060 


P.T. 33 


ii. 


26 








P.T. 60 


xxxviii. 


13 








P.T. 44 


xix. 


26 








P.T. 61 


XXX. 


40 








P.T. 50 


xxxviii. 


17 








Lam. 


i. 


3 








P.T. 61 


xxxi. 


43 




4971 


2245 


P.T. 33 


viii. 


85 








D'Arr. 


ii. 


8 








P.T. 61 


XXX. 


41 




4565 


2072 


P.T. 33 


V. 


48 




5046 


2297 


P.T. 61 


XXX. 


42 





* No. 1179=h. 360. Other figures of the great nehula in Orion will be found in Huyghens's Systema Satur- 
nium, 1659; ditto, copied by Le Gentil in Mem. Acad. Sci. Par. 1759, pi. 21. fig. 1 ; Le Gentil's own figure in 
do. do. fig. 2 ; by Picard, do. do. fig. 5 ; another by Le Gentil, do. do. fig. 6. See also : 

Mairan, " Sur la Lumiere Zodiacale," copied in Lalande's ' Astronomy.' These older representations, however, 
are mere curiosities, and present no points of exact resemblance. 

Messier, Hist, de 1'Acad. Sci. Par. 1771, p. 435.. .461. Plate 8 is a careful and (for the time) elaborate figure. 

J. F. W. Herschel, Mem. Astron. Soc. ii. 1826. 

De Vico, Memoria intorno ad alcune osservazioni fatte nel Collegio Romano nel corrente anno 1838, nebulosa 
d'Orione osservata al Telescopio di Cauchoix. 1839. 

Bond. A very fine engraving not yet published. 

t No. 4447. P.T. 44. xix. fig. 29. There is an erratum in this figure. For Decl. 32 49' n read 22 49' n. 



44 



SIE J. F. W. HEESCHEL'S CATALOGUE 



The following nebulae have been indicated by Lord Rosse as being either " of spiral 
structure (S), having in them dark spaces (D), as knotted (K), or as in the form of rays 
(i. e. much elongated forms) with splits or clefts (R). 



No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 




No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. Ac. 




No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 




No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


h. &c. 




202 


84 


K 


2158 


731 


D 


2717 


1085 


8 


3249 


1451 


S 


372 


142 


S 


2194 


749 


S 


2733 


1092 


8 


3258 


1456 


8 


594 


257 


K 


2248 


788 


D 


2749 


1107 


D 


3474 


1570 


8 


600 


262 


S 


2373 


854 


S 


2807 


1149 


B, 


3572 


1622 


S 


604 


264 


D 


2377 


857 


D 


2870 


1196 


S 


3750 


1734 


S 


888 


327 


S 


2379 


858 


3 


2878 


1202 


S 


3843 


1776 


S 


895 


329 


K 


2413 


887 


D 


2890 


1211 


8 


4045 


1901 


K 


1267 


368 


D 


2445 


910 


S 


2910 


1225 


D 


4058 


1!)09 


D 


1458 


409 


K 


2499 


943 


S 


2991 


1274 


K 


4087 


1917 


R 


1527 


446 


K 


2559 


982 


S 


3049 \ 


1 '' 1 -' 




4572 


2075 


8 


1676 


514 


D 


2597 


1002 


S 


, 3050 J 


1O1Z 




4815 


2172 


S 


1806 


581 


K 


2652 


1041 


B 


3106 


1357 


R 


4964 


2241 


D 


2058 


692 


D 


2670 


1052 


8 


1 3121 


1368 


S 


4971 


2245 


S 


2066 


695 


S 


2680 


1061 


S 















List of Errata and Corrigenda in Sir William HersclwVs Catalogue of 2500 Nebulce in 

the Philosophical Transactions. 







No. in 




Class. 


No. 


Cata- 


Error and Correction. 






logue. 




I. 


6 


3702 


for f. 3 56 read (. 33"> 56' 




54 


214 


for f. 12 m 44 ; s. 2 50' read f. 18 m 36 ; B. 1 26' 




87 


2274 


for {. 9 m 30" read f. 10 m 30" 




137 


1837 


for 42 Lyncis read 41 Lyncis 




143 


3356 


for s. 2 7' read s. 54' 




144 


3846 


for n. 24' read n. 2 7' 




153 


536 


for p. 23 m 16" read f. 23 m 16 




154 


549 


for f. l m 23" read p. 1 23 s 




155 


778 


for f. 7 m 49" read p. 7 49 




202 


2604 


for f. O m 47 read f. 7 m 47' 




203 


2597 


for t. 7 m 42" read f. 14" 42 


II. 


1 


4738 


for p. 15>::, s. 4:: read p. 11">45", n. 17' 




H 


2824 


for f. 1 24', n. 24' read f. l m 13", n. 30* 




14 


2730 


for 3 () Virginis f. 2 m 20", n. 1 22' read 59 e Virginia p. 69 m 0', n. 11' 




48 


1707 


for f. 56" 1 45' read f. 54 m 45 s 




181 


3214 


for s. 48' read s. 1 15' 




185 


3421 


for p. ll m 0" read p. l m 0* 




239 


634 


for 27 () Persei p. 8 20, n. 2' read 30 Persei p. 14> 41, n. 51' 




240 


5046 


for read 39 Pise. p. 2" 24', n. 1 0* 




241 


29 


for read 39 Pise. p. 14" 24', . 11' 




242 


4973 


for 48 (ft) Pegasi read 87 (u) Pegasi 




264 


1335 


for 47 (J) Cancri read 25 (S) Canis 




265 


1384 


for 1 x Can. read ! 1 Can. 




286 


654 


for p read 13 () Eridani p. 




314 


3528 


for f. 17" 57" read f. IS-" 57 




372 


2771 


for p. 74" 24" read p. 14 24 




658 


1718 


for 44 Lyncis read 43 Lyncis 




708 


1788 


for 37 Lyncis read 36 Lyncis 




794 


(31771 
13179J 


for a. 49' read s. 1 0' (see note on this No. in CataL) 




795 


3216 


for s. 1 13' read s. 1 24' (see note on this No. in Catal.) 




796 


3224 


for s. 1 25' read s. 1 36' (see note on this No. in Catal.) 




818 


4056 


for 12 Draconis read 12 Draconis Hevelii 




853 


14 


for p. 25 m 38' read p. 25 m 48" 


II . 


6 
26 


3228 
3078 


for 59 (e) Virginis p. 28 m 1 1" read d Virginis f. 2 42", u. 57'. The obs. belongs to 1. 8 
for 20 Comas f. 4 m 30, s. 37' read 26 Comae p. 5 m 5', s. 32' 




112 


2417 


for 74 f Leouis f. 10 m 6", s. 1 52' read Mayer 510. z. p. 61 m 48". s. 1 W 




113 


2577 


for if Leonis f. 34 m 18", s. 1 3' read Mayer 510. z. p. 37 m 36', s. 31' 




178 


631 


for 17 (y) Persei f. 9 m 6 s read 17 (r) Persei f. 10" s 




192 


419 


for 72 Ceti read 62 Ceti 



OF NEBULJE AND CLUSTEES OF STAES. 



45 



TABLE (continued). 



Class. 


No. 


No. in 
Cata- 
logue. 


Error and Correction. 


III. 


is;. 

199 
256 
289 
2113 
319 
347 
353 
369 
422 
423 
511 
607 
627 
739 
751 
778 


G84 
628 
1641 
1911 
1974 
3888 
3844 
2440 
3618 
3664 1 
3668 / 
4042 
1645 
1820 
4149 
1897 
3206 


for {. 42" 42- read t. 41- 6- 
for 27 (t) Persei p. 8 27", n. 2' read 30 Persei p. 14" 44', n. 55' 
for s. 0" 48' read s. 0' 58' 
for s. 25' read s. 31' 
for 23 Leonis read 23 Looms minoris 
for n. 2 26' read s. 2 26' 
for s. 1 17' read s. 17' 
for {. S3 1 " 4 read (. 43 4 


for n. 44' read n. 36' 

for f. 3 m 5 read f. 3 m 11' 
for p. 12 33" read p. 12 23" 
for 43 Lvncis read 42 Lyncis 
for p. 32" 30" read p. 32'" 47' 
fur 39 Lyncis read 38 Lyncis 
for s. 1 4' read B. 1 15' (see note on this No. in Catal.) 


IV. 


29 
31 


2255 

4802